KRE-DIt 2024/1 Abstracts

Abstracts in theological studies

Máté Márkus: Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy

The question of the article is how to think about the human predicament. The author notes that all dogmatics ask questions about the situation of man, even those that have God as their subject because it is God who determines everything, including man. Dogma means thought, but all thought is based on experience. The experience of “others” or the experience of “self”. The author reminds us that for the “self” all dogma, thought, expressed in the course of dogmatic history, is based on the experience of “others”, even if they are the “others” behind the biblical material, with the authority of divine self-disclosure. In this way, two ways of thinking have emerged in the history of Christian thought. The one based on the experience of others alone, and the one based on the experience of others and self. These two schools of thought, orthodoxy, and heterodoxy, are compared by the author in terms of functions, sources, and methods.

Keywords: orthodoxy, heterodoxy, liberal, history of dogma, Tillich

Kata Pető-Veres: A Study of Contemporary Reformed Baptism Sermons in the Hungarian Reformed Church

The Order of Worship, which was introduced in 1985 and is still in force, defines the baptism sermon at a baptismal service as a very short sermon, which according to the liturgy is to be preached on the basis of the passage on the Great Commission (Mt 28,18–20). According to the Manual of Preachers, which appeared a few years earlier in 1980, the baptism sermon should answer three questions: „Who received it?”, „What does it symbolize?”, and „What does it oblige us to do?”. By answering these three questions, we satisfy the requirements of the sacramental sermon. In practice, however, we find that most pastors read a second, chosen text in addition to the Great Commission and begin to preach based on it. The danger of this is that the Great Commission is relegated to the background and the chosen verse is not used to speak about the essence, dogmatics, and life-forming significance of baptism, but about anything else that can be formulated on the basis of the chosen passage. In this way, the genre of the sacramental sermon merges with the genre of the sermon in worship. In my research, I will explore this phenomenon and the themes considered relevant by pastors speaking at baptisms today.

Keywords: baptism, Great Commission, secondary base text, contemporary sermons, topics of sermons of baptism

Petra Krisztina Ratkovics: Beyond Quotations. Other Forms of Intertextuality Within the Scripture

In this article, we are investigating an important question in the field of Old and New Testament relationships: how is the OT present in the NT? We are using Richard Hays’s book Echoes of Scripture as a starting point and his threefold classification: citations/quotations, allusions, and echoes. As a fourth category, the concept of cultural intertextuality is introduced, based on a shared cultural code between writer and reader. The first three forms of intertextuality are mainly concerned with syntactical and lexical correspondence, while the fourth, cultural intertextuality is derived from literary studies and looks to the OT as an „ideational resource” for themes, motifs, images, etc. expanded upon in the NT. We are detailing the seven criteria Hays laid down to help identify intertextuality (but especially allusion and echo), and arguing that the understanding and research of OT presence in the NT should be extended to include the above-detailed forms of intertextuality.

Keywords: intertextuality, relationship of Old and New Testament, allusion, Richard Hays

Zoltánné Stifler: Communication Psychology of Influence and Persuasion with a Homiletical Perspective

All communication is intended to persuade. But to do so, it requires the simultaneous application of a range of knowledge and the coordinated action of all parties involved in the communication. Communication psychology considers the knowledge and appropriate use of the psychology of persuasion and influence as a prerequisite for successful communication. If the party initiating the communication applies these skills, it is more likely to achieve success with its listeners. This study aims to present the psychological and communicative aspects of influence and persuasion and to highlight one of its homiletical aspects.

Keywords: influence, homiletics, preaching, communication, communication psychology, persuasion, preaching, preacher, psychology

Abstracts of legal science studies

Csaba Cservák: Types of nationalities and their brief history in Hungary

There are three categories of national minorities. A significant proportion of Hungarians live abroad. This is why minority protection is important for Hungary. The protection of national minorities has also been a priority for Hungary under the historical constitution. Certain ethnic groups had a special status. Currently, 13 ethnic groups are granted nationality status in Hungary. A similar preference for Turks and Italians would be justified by the historical past.

Keywords: minority protection, discrimination, Hungarians, autonomy, historical constitution.

Zsolt Dániel Gyebrovszki : The Impact of the Multilingualism of the European Union on National Legislation, Particularly on the Consistent Implementation and Enforcement of the Rules on Competition Damages Actions 

Contrary to the public enforcement of competition law by competition authorities, which dominates competition law in the European Union and in the Member States, the system of competition law damages actions inherently mixes public and private law rules, which operate on the basis of different legal concepts and different conceptual sets. Competition damages actions have been regulated in the form of a directive, which, taking into account the heterogeneity of private law, the multilingual nature of the European Union, and the semantic diversity of EU and national legal terminology, has created legislative and enforcement challenges resulting in linguistic inconsistencies. A number of legal issues have surrounded competition damages actions since the Courage case, but the introduction of Directive 2014/104/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2014 on certain rules governing actions for damages under national law for breach of the rules on competition (“Directive”) does not seem to have resolved all of these issues.

Keywords: competition law, competition damages actions, European Union, legislation, multilingualism

Andrea Hatlaczki-Kálmán: Current changes in penal law, or the system of categories and credits

The article presents a systemic description of the conceptual amendments to Act No CCXL of 2013 on the enforcement of penalties, measures, certain coercive measures, and the detention of offenders (Bv. tv.), which will come into effect on 1 March 2024. The author wrote about the amendment of legislation, which involves introducing new legal provisions and abolishing existing ones. However, it is not yet known whether an implementing regulation amending the standard will be published. The author refrained from presenting detailed rules in this text, as it would have been an irresponsible undertaking. Instead, the author hopes that this comprehensive review will serve as a prelude to a more detailed description of the changes at a later date. Due to the upcoming legislative changes, my research will be based solely on the amended provisions of the Bv. tv. and the normative Act XCVII of 2023, which contains amendments to Act XCVII of 2023 on criminal law and other related acts, as well as the explanatory memoranda of these laws. The new legal instruments are believed to promote the legal and social objectives of imprisonment more effectively due to their objectivity and capacity to influence the personality of the prisoner.

Keywords: law enforcement, execution of sentence, amendment of legislation, category and credit system

Viktória Kovács: Reflections on the Values and Regulation Behind the Law

The relationship between law, morality, and religion is intricate and multifaceted, with norms exhibiting varying influences depending on societal nature and culture. The study Reflections on the Values and Regulation Behind the Law scrutinizes these relationships to elucidate their mutual shaping and impact. Over time, the dynamic between law, morality, and religion has evolved, leading to the separation of church and secular norms. While law governs societal operation, morality, and religion persist in shaping human conduct. Presently, the clash of values, evident in disparities between religious practices and legal norms, as well as the media’s role in shaping social norms, is particularly salient. Moreover, differing interpretations of crime exist within legal and religious systems. This study underscores that law, morality, and religion comprise interconnected regulatory spheres, and their alignment can contribute to the harmonious functioning of society.

Keywords: legislation, religion, law, morality, society

Viktória Kovács: The Process of European Integration in Ukraine: Pacta Sunt Servanda – Concluded Contracts Must Be Respected

This research explores the process of Ukraine’s integration into the European Union, delving into the initial steps taken by the young state toward independence and its subsequent efforts to forge a distinct national identity. It examines the pivotal milestones that marked Ukraine’s path towards European integration, including signing the Association Agreement and establishing the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area. The article discusses the possibilities and challenges faced by Ukraine in its pursuit of EU membership, with a particular focus on the rights of national minorities, exemplified by the Hungarian minority in Ukraine. Obstacles and mistakes in Ukraine’s integration journey are critically analyzed, highlighting laws that have narrowed the rights of national minorities and garnered international criticism. The study also presents the views of international bodies, such as the Venice Commission and the OSCE High Commissioner for Minorities, who have expressed concerns about discrimination and failure.

Keywords: Ukraine, European integration, minority rights

Anna Kovácsné Molnár: The establishment and development of the protection of children in Hungary

During my research, I examined the victims of crimes requiring special care, the children, who have been increasingly protected globally by legal tools. I considered the Hungarian legal regulations, their EU and international background, which served as bases to the protection of children introduced in criminal procedures. Furthermore, I analyse the children’s rights provided by the act on the protection of children, the act on churches, and the Fundamental Law of Hungary. This allows me to compare the opportunities ensured for children by the different legal regimes. By examining child-friendly law enforcement I also touch upon European and international protection of children, which affected the development of the related Hungarian acts. The goal of the historical overview, as well as of the European and international review is to provide a historical guide to the development of the protection of children from the era of King Stephen I until it became an essential requirement also in criminal procedures. I also want to reveal whether the development of children’s protection, and the development of the related legal regulations have effect on society.

Keywords: justice, prosecution, child, child protection, church, state, victim, treatment

Edina Lajos: On the Moral Implications of a Constitutional Complaint

There are two scientific approaches to morality. One is public morality and the other is critical morality. The best way to enforce fundamental constitutional rights is by means of a constitutional complaint, which can take several forms. Under the previous Constitutional Court Act, a constitutional complaint could only be lodged if the legislation applied was itself in breach of fundamental rights. This constellation, however, entailed the possibility of legal loopholes. The new Constitutional Court Act defines three sub-types of constitutional complaint. Very specifically, the specific remedy of the Prosecutor General is also included in the category of constitutional complaint. The actual constitutional complaint is modelled on the German model. This means that a judicial decision can also be challenged on the grounds of a breach of fundamental rights. In practice, the Constitutional Court receives very few cases.

Keywords: public morality and critical morality, law and morality, Constitutional Court, legal remedies, constitutional complaint, legal vacuum, questions of fact

István Széchenyi: Cryptocurrencies and Related Legal Challenges

The rapid rise of cryptocurrencies has created new legal challenges both in the financial and legal sectors. This study examines the most significant legal issues for crypto traders, including taxation, leverage, and inheritance. The author, among other things, points out the similarities and differences between cryptocurrencies and traditional financial instruments and makes recommendations for improving legal regulations. In addition to precise definitions, the study emphasizes the importance of choosing the right crypto exchange, describes the system of crypto taxation in Hungary, and criticizes ESMA’s leverage restrictions. The main differences between centralized and decentralized crypto exchanges are also discussed in the study, bringing up the issue of inheritance. One of the author’s main conclusions is that cryptocurrencies should be treated similarly to traditional financial instruments in legal and tax matters.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, crypto, crypto money, blockchain, taxation, leverage, ESMA

István Széchenyi: Freedom of Expression and Responsibility in Social Media: Ethical Dilemmas in the 21st Century

The rise of social media has fundamentally transformed communication and the flow of information, effectively becoming a new arena for public discourse. Freedom of speech has gained new dimensions, raising numerous ethical and legal issues. This study examines these dilemmas, focusing on the collision between freedom of expression and human dignity on social media platforms. The study addresses the responsibility of social media platforms in content regulation and the spread of disinformation as well as the global challenges arising from differing ethical approaches. It also examines regulatory efforts within the European Union and the phenomenon of filter bubbles. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of these issues.

Keywords: social media, freedom of speech, freedom of expression, human dignity, fake news, hate speech, platform

Dániel Szűcs: Following a Judicial Initiative, or a Case Study on a Motion Pending Before the Constitutional Court

The study examines the judicial initiative underlying a case pending before the Constitutional Court, in which the petitioner Regional Court challenges the compatibility with the Fundamental Law of a provision of the law according to which the prosecutor is also entitled to bring an action for a ban on the activity or for compensation for the damage caused by the activity in the event of a breach of the legislation on the welfare and protection of animals. In accordance with the methodology of jurisprudential analysis, the analysis primarily applies a fundamental (legal) doctrinal approach, which is presented through the practice of the Constitutional Court and the position and findings of the relevant Constitutional Court decisions. Comparative analysis is used as a secondary research methodology, synthesizing the essence of the legal arguments presented in the petition and in the opinions issued in the case (Minister of Justice, Prosecutor General, Deputy Commissioner for Fundamental Rights Ombudsman for Future Generations).

Keywords: animal protection, animal protection law, public prosecutor, commencement of an action, constitutional complaint, judicial initiative, individual review, case law analysis, case study

Abstracts in historical studies

Krisztián Bödő: Vásárosnaményi báró Eötvös Ignác tartozásai és hitelezői

The bankruptcy proceedings against Ignác Eötvös the Younger (1786-1851), father of József Eötvös, began on 20 September 1841 in Borsod County. The litigation dragged on for decades, and the case was finally closed only in 1899. This study aims to shed light on one of the key antecedents and backgrounds of the bankruptcy case: the family’s debts. Research in nine counties has been decisively successful, with a total of two hundred and fourteen debt records collected from the records of the General Assembly. Although the amounts collected do not provide a complete picture of the family’s financial situation, they do shed light on the background to the bankruptcy and the formation of Ignác Eötvös’s circle of creditors, which was the second question addressed in the study. The identifiable individuals suggest that the circle of creditors was rather heterogeneous, with a significant number of loan transactions being backed by merchants, especially for larger sums of money.

Keywords: bankruptcy, debt, creditor, county

Péter Farkas: “Nobiles Iobagiones Episcopatus Wesprimiensis Exercituare Debentes”: Aspects of the Ecclesiastical Nobility of the Veszprém Bishopric 13-14th Century History (Taxation, Judging, Ownership)

The ecclesiastical nobles of the Veszprém bishopric with military service were first selected from among the people of the church’s conditioning. The noble serfs had limited freedom in terms of ownership: with the permission of the bishop, they could participate in property exchange, purchase, and sale of property. In the case of entering nobles, we meet with the provision of the possibility of leaving the church service. Achieving the tax exemption of the estates of the ecclesiastical nobles was also a process that took place in different ways depending on the institution. Achieving judicial independence was also part of a process consisting of several steps: the first step was achieving the Church’s judicial privilege. Legal service privileges for noble serfs could only follow after that. Here, too, we see the same thing as with regard to taxation and ownership: the privileges apply only to those who enter and not generally to the entire social class. Between the noble serfs of the Veszprém bishopric, there was a difference in both legal and economic terms. In the 14th century, the significantly more favorable situation of the entrants of noble origin can also be found in the property-acquiring and concentrating will of the Veszprém bishopric.

Keywords: Nobles of the Church, Bishop of Veszprém, medieval Hungary, Church history, military history

Ádám Gyócsi: The National Assembly at Kereszténysziget and The Sultan’s Congratulatory Letter

My study aims to explore a slice of events in Transylvania in the late 17th century. This is the time of the wars of liberation from the Turks. In doing so, I will discuss Imre Thököly’s brief reign as prince of Transylvania and the battle that brought him to the throne. I will then look at the events leading up to the first and last Diet of Kereszténysziget, with particular reference to the letter of congratulations from the Sultan delivered at the Diet. The full Hungarian translation of the letter in question was done by me. The Turkish original of the text was also translated into Latin in the 17th century. I have translated the Latin into Hungarian. The concluding part of the essay gives an insight into the work of the quickly completed Diet, following the chain of cause and effect and foreshadowing Imre Thököly’s last, doomed act on Hungarian land. The focus of the essay is on the translation and the text that contains it. I have tried to place the text in the cavalcade of events that is rapidly unfolding. These events marked the final days of the “independent” Principality of Transylvania.

Keywords: Imre Thököly, Transylvania, Kereszténysziget, Turkish, Sultan’s congratulatory letter

Zsolt Balázs Pétsy: The Peace Priests and the Exercise of Power by the Party-State in Hungary

The Hungarian socialist party-state, in its political power and ideological goals, has put the peace priests at the service of its own interests in its fight against those defined as “clerical reactionary elements”. In my essay, I would like to draw attention to the sharp differences between the state-directed activities of the clerical peace movement and the official peace objectives published in the public domain – in the press and in propaganda – based on the controversial word ‘peace priest’. The study and processing of the archival sources make the contradiction tangible in the text of the documents. An important aspect of a more detailed study of the national organization of the peace movement and the localized functioning of the peace committees organized at the regional level could be to directly investigate the impact of the peace priests on society and believers. The ideological contradictions behind the clerical peace movement should also be considered in the processing of archival sources.

Keywords: peace priest, clerical peace movement, ecclesiastical peace movement, priestly peace movement, Opus Pacis, clerical reaction, Vatican, State Office for the Church, party-state, state security

Zsolt Balázs Pétsy: Report on the Consultative Meeting of Representatives of the Church Offices of the Socialist Countries (1986)

The purpose of this source note is to provide a textual presentation of the Report on the Consultative Meeting of the Representatives of the Church Offices of the Socialist Countries and to present the historical significance of the source. Representatives of the Hungarian, Czechoslovak, Polish, GDR, Soviet, Vietnamese, and Cuban Church Offices held a consultative meeting in Budapest in January 1986. This meeting had been initiated by the Hungarian State Office for Church Affairs at an earlier meeting of the heads of the state church offices in Prague in 1984, to analyze the Vatican’s policy towards the socialist countries and to draw up proposals for practical action. The importance of the documents contained in the source release is that they provide insight into the form of the discussions between socialist church organizations and the way in which the head of the office informed the MSZMP Agitation and Propaganda Department on the specific case.
From a scientific point of view, the significance of the contents of the document can be summarized as follows. 1: The fact of reporting to the Agitprop Department; 2: the ideological and practical content of the memo on which the report is based; 3: the meeting of socialist church organizations and offices, the organized conferences; 4: the close cooperation and coordination between these offices and its focus as described above.

Keywords: socialist church offices, State Office for Church Affairs, Vatican, church, church reactionary elements

Adrienn Purcsi: Historical Essay, or In Short About the Nationality Policy and the Revision That Appeared in the Spirit of St. Stephen’s Idea of the State

St. Stephen’s state policy and the revisionist and nationality policy appearing as part of it are the most defining elements of the political thinking of the Horthy era. In many specialized literatures, we can read about their importance, but less about their exact definition. In our short historical essay, we attempt to briefly and concisely define the content elements of these concepts.

Keywords: Horthy-era, revision, issue of nationality, István Bethlen, Pál Teleki, Gyula Szekfű

Zsolt Turi: A Pragmatic Conflict: Polish Military Activity in the Counties of Northern Hungary in 1918

In the autumn of 1918, Polish armed units occupied settlements and industrial facilities in Northern Hungary. The territories in question were the counties of Árva and Szepes. These regions had considerable numbers of Poles and the invading armed forces invoked the right of peoples to self-determination to justify their actions. Hungarian military and law enforcement forces on the spot had orders to defend the territory of the country; however, in most cases, they retreated from the conflicted areas not wanting to engage in firefights with Polish units. The truth is that neither country’s leadership had an interest in clashing with the other. Poland was a newborn state that needed allies to assert its newly acquired statehood. Hungary was a country exhausted by war, surrounded by enemies, and having deep internal problems. In northwestern Hungary, Czech influence was already spreading thus the Hungarian political leadership believed that the Hungarian state would suffer territorial losses in any case. They preferred to lose these areas to Poland than to the Czechs and thus a complete ring of hostility around Hungary cannot be achieved by its neighbors. In 1923, an agreement was signed deciding the fate of Árva and Szepes counties, which left most of these areas to the Czech (Czechoslovak) side.

Keywords: Polish, Árva, Szepes, Hungary, 1918, diplomacy, agreement, 20th century, interwar period, military, Czech, statehood, nationality, Czechoslovakia

KRE-DIt 2023/2 Abstracts

Abstracts of theological studies

Remonda Rofaiel: Ethical and Biblical Reflections on Refugee and Minority Issues: Global and Egyptian Perspectives

This paper explores the ethical and biblical aspects of refugee and minority issues, in both the global and Egyptian contexts. Drawing upon biblical examples of migration, refugees, and minorities, we aim to understand how these narratives ethically and practically influence Christian ministry. By embracing these implications, we will delve into fulfilling the call to love our neighbors and create a more just and compassionate world, considering the responsibilities of Christian organizations and individuals in responding to their needs.

Keywords: migration, refugees, minorities, Egypt, Christian ministry.

Abstracts of legal science studies

Csaba Cservák: Chapters from the legal history of popular representation

Around the world we can face with a big diversity in the electoral systems. The most defining principle of plurality systems is individual competition between candidates. Relative majority possesses centuries-old roots in Britain. The absolute majority voting systems can be placed into two categories. Within certain limits governments have the right to determine how many votes a single citizen is allowed to cast, and how. Therefore, we can also find majority-, proportional- and preferential electoral systems around the world. Single- and multiple-vote systems are neither unfamiliar. The virtues of proportionality and choice between individuals are organically conjoined in the vote-transfer system.

Keywords: majority voting, preferential system, premium list, vote-transfer, personalised PR-system (in Germany), Hungarian electoral model

Csaba Cservák: The historical constitution: a kind of unique legitimacy and a particular division of powers

The three basic types of legitimacy are traditional, charismatic, and rational legal. In the past, legitimacy of tradition was typical. Present days, the legitimacy of rationality is typical. The divided power is necessarily restricted which is a prevention of the abuse of power and an institutionalized form of the protection against autocracy. The great oracle Montesquieu distinguishes the legislative power, the power which falls within the scope of international law and executive power related to civil law issues. For several aspect in the theory of the distribution of power, it may be more appropriate to use the concept of the separation of the functions of power instead of the concept of the separation of powers. Hungary had a specific constitution: the Historical Constitution based on the Holy Crown. According to this, the Holy Crown serves as the material embodiment of the supreme power of the state and sovereignty. Historic constitutions are also commonly referred to as unwritten constitutions, as opposed to written constitutions, which form the other major category.

Keywords: legitimation, division of power, branches of power, Historical Constitution, doctrine of the Holy Crown, sovereignty, nobility

György Tamás Farkas: Possibilities of grouping the special electoral rules for the parliamentary representation of minorities based on active and passive suffrage

The literature on special electoral rules for minorities typically either groups the models of some countries on the basis of the guaranteed mandate versus the preferential mandate or highlights a specific electoral instrument (e.g. “preferential threshold”) and makes a grouping on this basis. Special electoral rules for minorities are designed to help them to be more effectively represented in elected bodies. The target audience of special electoral law is therefore the minority itself, as a defined electoral community. For this reason, at the grouping, of the special electoral rules for the parliamentary representation of minorities I have approached the issue essentially from the point of view of minority voters, i.e., from the point of view of how minority voters exercise their electoral rights when casting their vote when exercising their right to vote, in comparison with non-minority voters.

Keywords: constitutional law, electoral law, minority law.

Róbert Holló: Judicial system of the Indian Nations – Tribal Courts in the United States

This paper discusses the role of the Indian tribal courts and the Courts of Indian Offenses in the resolution of disputes between Indian and non-Indian persons on various Indian reservations in the United States. Tribal courts are operated by Indian tribes under laws and procedures enacted by the tribe or incorporated into the tribe’s own legal system, which are often similar to or different from the laws and procedures of federal and state courts. Most tribes receive funding from the Department of the Interior to operate their judicial systems, although many tribes fund it with their own resources. The Courts of Indian Offenses are special courts operated by the U.S. Department of the Interior and the Bureau of Indian Affairs on certain reservations. These courts operate under the federal provisions of Volume 25 of the Code of Federal Regulation and are therefore often referred to as “CFR” courts. There are currently approximately 150 tribal courts in the United States and approximately 20 CFR courts.  Although Native peoples resort to a variety of other methods to resolve their disputes, including traditional dispute resolution methods, some of which have been incorporated into tribal justice systems, this paper focuses primarily on the formal justice systems.

Keywords: Lakota, Sioux, BIA, CFR, tribal court, Crow Dog, jurisdiction, native American

László Horváth: The Main Issues of Bosnia-Herzegovina’s Electoral System – Can the Challenge be Overcome?

The analysis, using the descriptive method, focuses on a long-standing issue in Bosnia and Herzegovina, related to the country’s electoral system and its national minority aspects. It is clearly visible that the Dayton Agreement is now more of an obstacle to the country’s development than a facilitator, as it created a state structure and electoral system that is unable to provide adequate answers to contemporary challenges. However, the solutions are still not outlined. Due to the characteristics of the electoral system, the lower and upper house parliaments, as well as the state and entity governments, are formed along ethnic lines, following a well-known practice, conserving and anticipating the political actions and scenarios already experienced in the past. The basic problem is that, despite the expectations of the international community and individual local actors, there is currently no likelihood of politicizing beyond the ethnic principle or raising the state interest to at least the same level as the ethnic interest. Nonetheless, this could be the sole opportunity to escape the present challenging situation. Behind the issues related to state-life – like the structure of the state, the constitutional division of powers, the state-level election law and the resulting Sejdic-Fincicas – without any exceptions originated from ethnic differences and mistrust. However, it may be regarded as a positive and hopeful development that occasionally the parties, albeit with extremely changing dynamics, manage to line up behind such “national or supranational issue” as joining the European Union. Consequently, this could be a breakthrough point for national minorities that are currently barely visible.

Keywords: Bosnia-Herzegovina, parliament, electoral system, national minorities, democracy

Dávid Keskeny: Aggressive commercial practices in consumer protection

The study and interpretation of consumer protection and aggressive commercial practices is a critical challenge for modern society. As a legal and ethical principle, consumer protection aims to protect consumers from harm caused by aggressive advertising and practices other than fair commercial practices. Aggressive commercial practices are designed to influence consumers and often subordinate their interests to their own benefit. This academic study seeks to understand the nature and effects of aggressive commercial practices and the consumer protection measures that are used to counter them. There are many forms of aggressive commercial practices, including false advertising, misleading information, push selling, manipulative pricing, and emotional manipulation. These practices are often deceptive and can lead to consumer loss, emotional distress and loss of trust.  The investigation of aggressive commercial practices is also of paramount importance because in the modern global economy consumers are highly dependent on a wide range of products and services. The proliferation of online commerce and electronic media has further increased the opportunities and scope for aggressive commercial practices, making the development and implementation of consumer protection measures and legislation even more urgent.  The aim of the study is to explore in depth the different forms of aggressive commercial practices, their effects on consumers and the market, and possible ways to protect against them. The research will also use case studies, statistical data and legal analysis to fully understand the picture. The importance of consumer protection measures and their positive impact on society will also be highlighted, while pointing to further opportunities and challenges for improvement in this area. The results of this study can help to understand aggressive commercial practices, reduce their impact and promote consumer protection in global markets.

Keywords: Consumer protection, Aggressive sales techniques, Unfair trading practices

Edina Lajos: A brief constitutional history of euthanasia in Hungary

In Hungary, the health law does not legalize euthanasia. A doctor may not hasten the death of a patient by either active or passive behavior. In Hungary, the matter was first referred to the Constitutional Court in November 1993. In the petitioners’ view, the Health Care Act unconstitutionally restricts the right to self-determination of incurable patients. For a long time the Court did not rule on the merits of the case. The Constitutional Court eventually rejected all the applications and ruled that the challenged legal provisions were constitutional. Euthanasia, according to some critics, affects the whole person and therefore cannot be restricted. In AB 24/2014 (22 July), there is no longer any trace of a chiseled fundamental rights rationale, and the majority reasoning states that there is no link between the state’s duty to protect life and the guarantees that ensure the patient’s freedom of choice.

Keywords: active euthanasia, passive euthanasia, constitutional review, right to self-determination, assisted suicide, state’s duty to protect life, guarantees of fundamental rights

Edina Lajos: Paper on the interplay of public and private law experiences

The theory of atypical electoral systems can be a lesson for civil law (company law). The block voting system used in civil law and Hungarian municipal law could be replaced by ‘restricted voting’. This would create more opportunities for minorities to get in. In a vote-transfer system, candidates would be ranked and then a quota calculated in this way would be used to fill the multiple seats. It is not simply a proportional system, we can say, but a very specific, complex, weighted method of calculation that takes into account voters’ secondary preferences. Public law could also learn from the experience of private law. The exclusion of members from parliamentary groups could be modelled on the exclusion of members known in company law. The protection of minorities in economic law is also instructive. While public law rules promote the inclusion of minorities in particular bodies, company law rules give an already established minority the rights to adjust majority decision-making under the general rule. Also, the logic of arbitration in some cases could be considered to be etalon in relation to public law adjudication. A realistic alternative in such cases could be to have the elected independent members nominate the chair.

Keywords: public law, private law, civil law, local government, electoral systems

Ouk Varinic: The role of due process and the importance of procedural fundamental rights in Hungarian law

This study examines the role of the principle of fair trial in the Hungarian legal system. The study focuses on the theoretical part, but practical elements also emerge in the study, mainly in the field of criminal law. My main aim with this paper is to prepare an article that deals primarily with the conceptual elements of fair trial, the theoretical and philosophical foundations and historical parts of the right to a fair trial, combining issues arising in criminal practice. Each chapter has been prepared specifically to familiarize the reader with different aspects of fair procedure and to help him recognize the significance of this fundamental procedural right. The fundamental right to a fair trial has not yet been fully accepted by the Hungarian constitutional literature. Although some pioneering work has already been written, most textbooks on constitutional law interpret only substantive fundamental rights, and commentary literature has largely been indebted to mapping the fundamental segments of this law and summarizing them for the legal public. Despite the fact that the right to a fair trial guaranteed by the Fundamental Law plays a prominent role in Hungarian constitutional court practice, therefore its impact on ordinary court practice and its practical significance are outstanding, therefore this article deals specifically with the theoretical parts of this principle, since there is no proper practice without theory. At the same time, a legal system can be said to have the fullest respect for fundamental rights if the legislation fully complies with constitutionality and is applied accurately and properly by the courts (or, more broadly, by law enforcement bodies)

Keywords: fair trial, constitutional complaint, constitutional court, fundamental right, procedure law

Adrienn Ronga: The right to human dignity as a general personal right and the prohibition of torture

The topic of my thesis is the right to life and the right to human dignity. In my opinion, the right to life is the starting point of the “heart chakra” of fundamental rights, since life, human existence itself is a necessary prerequisite for the existence of any other fundamental right. In my study, I examine the content and relationship between the right to life and the right to human dignity. In conclusion, it can be said that the practice of the Constitutional Court and the provisions of the Basic Law clearly believe that soul and body are inseparable from each other, the right to life is considered to be one of the manifestations of human dignity, so they are indivisible and unlimited, for this reason the derivation of unwritten rules from the concept of basic rights and from the text of the constitution, it undoubtedly requires intellectual effort during judgment and judicial application of law.

Keywords: constitutional law right to life, right to human dignity, general personality right, prohibition of torture

Dániel Szűcs: Exploring the historical roots of human trafficking, or the status of slaves in ancient Rome

This paper delves into the historical depths of the institution of Roman slavery in order to explore the roots of the crime of human trafficking. By dissecting each aspect, the author seeks to shed light on the enduring legacy of exploitation, while also providing an opportunity to discuss how the ancient tradition has evolved over millennia into the crime of trafficking, incompatible with fundamental human values, that continues to plague the world today. A key starting point is that slavery was an integral part of this ancient social concept. By exploring the socio-cultural, economic and social dimensions, this study aims to shed light on the systematic dehumanization that slaves suffered in antiquity. The thesis focuses on key aspects of Roman slavery, such as issues of personal status, the wide spectrum of ways in which enslaved status was aroused and ended, the sometimes inhumane living conditions, and the role of the state and society in perpetuating the institution. Drawing parallels between the treatment of slaves and the situation of victims of trafficking today, the past casts a rather large shadow over the present. The aim of the historical inquiry is to draw attention to the persistence of human trafficking and to call for continued vigilance and action in the perpetual struggle against human rights violations.

Keywords: exploitation, inhuman treatment, forced labour, human trafficking, slavery, antiquity

Milán Töreki: Attempts to define the concept of money and its relationship with the State and public administration

What is money? Why is gold valuable? Why can we pay with a small piece of paper or a plastic card? What is economy? What is the real value assessor? These are the questions which have been asked by many, and nobody has managed to give a short answer. The mysticism surrounding money and man’s wish to own it has permeated both our society and how we organize the state. However, this did not develop in the modern eras, but is as old as humanity, only the objective manifestations of it, value assessment has changed during the decades. In my short study, following a short historical overview, I will try to define the impossible and summarize through which scientific disciplines we can describe money as a phenomenon. I will proceed first by examining legal, then economic and sociological aspects. Concerning legal aspects I have taken into consideration relevant legal regulations and their interpretations. Finally, I will attempt to create my own definition of money. In creating my own definition, I proceed primarily by taking into consideration administrative law and the aspects of organizing the state. My theory is that the definition of money itself is subjective, and the aim of my study is to summarize and induce debate and raise new ideas.

Keywords: value assessor, history of law, monetary law, administrative law, Georg Simmel, definition of money, organization of the state, money in sociology

Abstracts in historical studies

Anna Mérész – Ferenc Pálházy:
The taxpaying society of Szolnok and the National Census in 1828 

The main aim of the study is to analyze how the tax-paying society of the relatively important settlement looked like at the beginning of its development and to give a basis for the reconstruction of the society of Szolnok. This is the period when the rural town was a part of the county of Heves and Külső-Szolnok, and the radical changes in its landscape had not begun (river regulation, building of the railway network). After coding the digitized document, Conscriptio Regnicolaris and Rectificata Conscriptio Regnicolaris, we did a descriptive statistical analysis in JASP version The results of these analyses are published to illustrate the taxpaying society of Szolnok. The census provided a relatively accurate picture of the individuals and their household situation and composition. The study describes the sizes of the households in Szolnok, the status of the taxpaying heads of the households, their house ownerships, occupations, and livestock. Using the available data, we describe a method of identifying spousal relationships, and also we attempt to resolve one of the previously unknown notations.

Keywords: national census of taxpayers in 1828, taxpaying society, Szolnok, occupational distribution, household composition

Ádám Papp: About the reception of the Catholic press of neo-nationalism in Klebelsberg – in the light of articles in Catholic Review

The aim of this study is to examine how and in what form the Catholic public media of the 1920s imterpretated Kuno Klebelsberg’s neonationalist conception of nationhood. In examining this issue, the author of this paper also included materials of “secondary” significance that were not written specifically by the aforementioned cultural politician, but by his contemporary intellectual companions. The reason for this can be indicated in the fact that Catholic publicists of the 1920s, confirming the hypothesis of the author of this paper, saw in organic continuity the Klebelsberg texts related to the identity discourse in question, as well as the writings of Gyula Kornis, which also thematically fundamentally explored the questions of Hungarian national action alternatives after Trianon. With regard to the working method, the author of the present study aimed at the development of the history of reception that can be traced in contemporary Catholic journalism, strictly taking care that this reception history fits into the historical context of the problems raised by the relevant national interpretation. The explanatory footnotes, widely used in the framework of the thesis, are themselves intended to serve the latter purpose. The author concludes that the Catholic history of publicistic reception of the aspects raised by neo-nationalism shows a fundamentally unanimous attitude, however, in their assessment of certain issues, the conservative perspective that emerged in their assessment was the de facto main obstacle to the real enforcement of Klebelsberg reform conservatism.

Keywords: catholicism, public, publicity, Kuno Klebelsberg, neonacionalism, national-censervative, cultural politician, identity discourse, reform conservatism, ideology, National liberalism, Christian-conservative, Cultural superiority, Integral revision, racist movement, Christian-national thought, Catholic press

Zsolt Balázs Pétsy: The Legacy of Dzerzhinsky

This historical essay explores the historical role and legacy of Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky and the meaning of the term Chekhism, from an individual perspective, but with historical facts to back it up. My starting point is that the historical role of the leader of the Soviet state security should be examined in a broader temporal and spatial perspective, i.e. from the emergence of Soviet-style dictatorships to their fall. In the essay, I also discuss the Hungarian aspects.

Keywords: Dzerzhinsky, Dzierżyński, cheka, chekism, chekist, state security, Soviet Union, soviet-type dictatorship

Adrienn Purcsi – Kristóf Berta: „Do you know, what a great funeral I would have if I would die?” Data to the placement of Dezso Szabo’s memorial tablet at the József Boulevard

Dezső Szabó is often described as a divisive figure, not only during the Horthy era but also today, but his political and intellectual significance is indisputable. In our article we will try to present briefly, but in a more comprehensive way, not only his personality and the ideas, trends and persons that influenced him, but also how he himself influenced. His memorial tablet on József körút is a perfect example of this. The memorial tablet is associated with the National Peasant Party, whose members were mostly folkish writers. Throughout his life, Dezső Szabó sought a public that was open to his ideas and able to identify with him completely. He did not find a strong support base among the political parties, but he did find a strong support base among young people, young folkish writers.

Keywords: world wars, Hungary, Horthy-era, Dezső Szabó, folkish writers, National Peasant Party, memorial tablet

Krisztián Attila Tímári: An enthusiastic Josephinist Johann Michael Schweighofer and the Last Turkish War

From the point of view of the Habsburg Empire, the last war against the Turks (1788-1791) saw an unprecedented level of public information dissemination. In addition to newspapers and magazines, interested readers could follow the events through various publications, pamphlets, and brochures. Johann Michael Schweighofer, the most prolific and frequent name to appear in the war’s printed materials, was significant. Although relatively little information is available about his life, it is immediately clear from his work that he was a Josephist committed to the Habsburg Empire and Joseph II. As an author with excellent contacts, he often shared information with the reading public that made him unrivalled in the field of information dissemination. On the other hand, he often wrote in a clichéd manner, presenting stereotypes of the time. The difference between his printed works is very noticeable, for which censorship is only partly responsible. The publication attempts to clarify questions such as whether Schweighofer shared information relevant to his audience and whether the course of the war was clearly transparent from his works, or whether they were rather blandly titled but merely average in terms of content.

Keywords: press, print, war, Habsburg Empire

Róbert Vendriczki: The Chronicle of Nagyfüged
Society and Economy of My Native Village in the Long 19th Century

Nagyfüged continued to develop continuously in the 19th century, economically, the number of livestock and the size of the cultivated areas increased, and socially, the population increased. The peak of its development was the 1840s, as it became the center of the electoral district and its economy reached its full potential. As a result, it also received the title of the large village. Nagyfüged was also affected by the foreign policy events affecting the country, and the population took part in the great wars of the era in large numbers. After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy the village also lost its importance and showed signs of stagnation.

Keywords: Development, economy, society, constituency, large village, war, Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, stagnation

Tamas Zmák: The Anti-Masonic Publicism of Károly Burján and István Miklóssy

The study gives an overview of the anti-Masonic publications of Károly Burján and István Miklóssy, teachers of a Budapest high school in the 1910s. Károly Burján became more widely known by his essay The Danger of Christianity and Hungarianism and his articles published in Béla Bangha’s Magyar Kultúra magazine. In his works he analysed the activities of Freemasons, radicals and freethinkers according to his own interpretation. István Miklóssy wanted to draw the attention of the national public opinion to the positioning of Freemasonry in the Hungarian educational system with his writings entitled Dangerous Symptoms in Our Schools; The Self-Exposure of Freemasonry and Open Interpellation… For the elaboration of my work, I used contemporary press materials, the above-mentioned printed sources, school bulletins and relevant literature. My initial hypothesis is that the anti-Masonic literature of the two teachers can only be interpreted superficially in itself. I justify this by describing the institutional environment of Burján and Miklóssy, and the economic and political tensions of teachers of that time. Overall, the two teachers’ picture of the “Masonic menace” went beyond itself; it became a simplistic manifestation of the crises of contemporary Hungary.

Keywords: Károly Burján, István Miklóssy, freemasonry, Béla Bangha, Magyar Kultúra, teachers’ society, Hungarian education, Kelet

KRE-DIt 2023/1 Abstracts

Abstracts in theological studies

Krisztián Gurányi: Overview of the logical sequence of predestination

The doctrine of predestination posits that some individuals are pre-selected by God for eternal salvation, while others are either consigned to the fate of the damned or actively chosen for eternal damnation. Within this doctrine, two distinct perspectives can be identified: the supra- and infralapsarian views, which offer differing accounts of the logical sequence of predestination. The former asserts that God first chose those who would be saved and rejected those who would be damned, allowing mankind to fall into sin thereafter. Conversely, the latter view contends that God first permitted sin to occur and subsequently selected individuals from among the damned for salvation. These views represent logical frameworks that aim to explicate the degree of pre-creation design. In this paper, I will outline the historical origins and theoretical foundations of both perspectives, drawing from the works of confessional texts and theologians. Given the absence of a comprehensive overview of the subject in Hungarian, I will limit myself to a general treatment of the topic, omitting an exhaustive exposition of the arguments advanced by each view, and instead emphasizing their essential features.

Keywords: predestination, supralapsarianism, infralapsarianism, Augustine, Calvin

Heung Sik Kim: The Korean Christian Student’s Evangelical Movement

The Protestant Christianity in the Republic of Korea is approximately 140 years old. During this relatively short time, the number of Christians grew rapidly, exceeding 20% of the total population. The evangelical movement of young Christian students played an important role in the background of the growth of Protestant Christianity. Thanks to the actions of Christian student movement associations, a spiritual awakening began in the Korean people, and the so-called miracle of Han River brought a great change and growth. The goal of this essay is to examine how important the Christian youth student movement has been in this short 140-year-old history of Christianity in Korea.

Keywords: Korean, christian, Evangelical Movement

Kata Pető-Veres: Data and context of the history and practice of the institution of godparents in Hungarian Reformed practice

During the apostolic period, the sacrament of baptism was mostly provided to adult converts and members of the household, which most certainly included children. After this period of church history, from the 4th to 5th century, infant baptism became increasingly common. The institution of household sponsors for the parents of the actual person disappeared, and in the 9th century, it was abolished permanently. After this, a system of criteria for the election of godparents was born. The characteristics expected by the church and the common people did not always coincide.

According to the Bible, the existence of the institution of godparenthood cannot be presumed. Nevertheless, it was passed on by the churches of the Reformation and given new content. In this presentation, I undertake to show what changes the institution of the godparent has undergone from the beginning to the present day, but especially in the Reformed Church. I will examine the criteria that godparents had to meet, the expectations placed on them, what assurances the church saw in the right godparents, their task in the baptismal liturgy, and to what extent these rules set by the church can be kept in the context of present society.

There has been no clear answer to all of these questions in church history because, as the lecture seeks to convey, many have approached the subject in different ways. A wide range of opinions is present at the same time, some in favor of choosing godparents based on very strict principles, and others quite mild, almost indifferent, in selecting them. It is important to talk about the institution of godparent because some believe it promotes the survival of a denomination.

Keywords: baptism, godparents, liturgy, responsibilities of godparents, different approaches in choosing godparents

Dániel Tóth-Gyóllai: The Reform of Pastoral Training: A Questionnaire-Based Study with the Participation of Eleven Western Protestant Churches

The aim of my study is to present the results of an online questionnaire-based survey (launched in February 2023) conducted among international churches, within the framework of the Reformed Church in Hungary’s 2023 annual program (The Year of Pastoral Ministry). The objective of the questionnaire-based research is to initiate a dialogue with our Western partner-churches regarding experiences, best practices, challenges, and explorations related to the reform of pastoral training, recruitment, education, qualification, further education, and spiritual/financial support of pastors. The analysis of the 25-question questionnaire, filled out by 11 out of 20 recipients, was conducted using the LimeSurvey questionnaire- editor and evaluator, based on previous research initiatives by the Reformed Church in Hungary and the materials produced in relation to pastoral training in the year 2023.

Keywords: online questionnaire, survey, inter-denominational, international, reform in pastoral training and ministry, MRE, The Year of Pastoral Ministry

Abstracts of legal science studies

György Tamás Farkas: Concepts of the special electoral regulations concerning the minorities’ parliamentary representation in Hungary from the end of the communism to 2010

In Hungary, with a delay of about a quarter of a century realized the legislator the special electoral regulations, which aimed the parliamentary representation of the minorities. During this period, several legislative drafts were created, of which many drafts remained at the concept level, but some reached the final vote. This study aims to review the legislator’s concepts regarding the special electoral regulations for minorities from the end of the communism, until the actual adoption of the special electoral regulations for minorities in 2011, when the legislator, in addition to the possibility of obtaining preferential mandates, also created the legal institution of the spokesperson (of a national minority), which became an active contributor to the power function with regard to legislation on minorities.

Keywords: constitutional law, electoral law, minority law

Zsolt Dániel Gyebrovszki: The issue of limitation period in competition damages actions

Since the Courage case, competition damages litigation has been surrounded by a number of legal issues. The introduction of Directive 2014/104/EU of the European Parliament and Council of 16 December 2014 on certain rules governing actions for damages under national law for infringements of the competition law provisions of the Member States and of the European Union (“Directive”) does not appear to have resolved all of these issues, and has generated a number of additional problems surrounding the legal instrument under examination. The present paper examines the problems related to the limitation period for claims for damages under competition law. First, I describe the regulatory rationale of the Directive on the issue of limitation periods for competition claims, and then analyse the EU case law on Article 10 of the Directive on limitation periods. In the following, I briefly describe the Hungarian legislation. In the later part of the paper, I will take a closer look at three specific issues related to the limitation period for competition damages claims: the cessation of the infringement, the acknowledgement of the identity of the infringing undertaking and the time when the damage occurred as conditions for the starting point of the limitation period. The purpose of this paper is to examine the above-mentioned issues relating to the limitation period for claims for damages under competition law and to draw conclusions on the basis of this examination.

Keywords: competition law, competition law damages actions, limitation period, economic continuity

Róbert Holló: Self-Government of Ethnic Minorities in the USA
An Overview of the Self-Government of the Native American Lakota Nation

The Lakota Tribe, also known as the Sioux, is one of the indigenous peoples of North America. Their traditional governance system is based on the principles of consensus, consultation, and respect for individual autonomy. In this system, decisions are made by consensus among members of the community, and everyone has an equal voice in the decision-making process. The Lakota also have a strong spiritual tradition, which is intertwined with their governance system and guides their relationships with the land and each other. In recent times, the Lakota have faced many challenges, including loss of land, cultural assimilation, and poverty. Despite these challenges, they have continued to maintain their traditional governance system and strive for self-determination. This essay provides an overview of the self-government of the Lakota Nation, including their governance structure, decision-making process, and relationship with the federal government. It also discusses the challenges they face and the strategies they have employed to preserve their cultural heritage and promote self-determination.

Keywords: constitutional law, self-government, government-to-government relationship, tribal council, ethnic minorities

Péter László Jeszenszki: The history of the special legal order from the second half of the 19th century to 1989

The aim of this study is to examine and explore the historical situations in Hungary’s history, especially from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, during which a special legal order was established or introduced in Hungary. Furthermore, the development of the legal regulations concerning the special legal order and their antecedents are examined, with special emphasis on the laws on national defence introduced during this period. The Ninth and Tenth Amendments to the Constitution, in response to a security environment that has changed significantly over the last ten years, set out to bring about a systemic reform that would result in a modern, effective defence system. The study could serve as a basis for a future analysis of the best way to respond to the challenges of the present day in relation to the special legal order, drawing on the experience of the last almost one hundred years, and on the principles and dogmatic aspects already established.

Keywords: special legal order, law of national defence, state of emergency, fundamental right, power, regulation, war, exceptional power

Károly Kubisch: Connections between child trafficking and child abuse

The present study is the continuation of a scientific research – previously started on the child protection system, which unfortunately brings us topicality. All in all we have to start with the fact that it appears that child protection legislation is still unable to provide adequate protection to the children who represent our future. In the United States, in California, legislation faced problems very similar to the ones we find ourselves in Hungary today. In my study I would like to demonstrate, that any sexual attraction against minors is considered a personality-distorting abuse committed to the detriment of the minor, regardless of how the perpetrators interpret it. For this reason, it is necessary to evaluate this set of behaviors not only from a legal point of view – through an ultima ratio filter – but – as US legislation does – due to its seriously deviant nature, it is treated as a consequence of a disorder mental dangerous to society.

Keywords: child abuse, child protection, human trafficking, relationship violence, mental disorder

Edina Lajos: Fundamentals of the connection between law and morality

Traditionally, morality and law can be seen as two distinct, separate sets of rules, each with its own different function. We can conclude that, according to the Reformed starting point, law and morality are very closely related. The Bible also connects the two norms, among other things calling on kings to do judgment and justice. In principle, there can be immoral but lawful actions, and moral but unlawful actions. If law and morality go together in lawmaking and law enforcement, there is no legal concern. The same applies at the other extreme. If both lawmaking and law enforcement are immoral, then we are faced with an almost irremediable legal problem. If the legislation is moral, but the application of the law is immoral, then the remedy system can eliminate the problem. If a moral problem arises in the course of lawmaking, the constitutional complaint procedure may be the solution.

Keywords: law, morality, constitutional law, legislation, application of law

Edina Lajos: The Holy Crown and legitimacy

The Holy Crown is much more than an object of great wealth. All the more so because the creation of the crown is surrounded by uncertainty. Let us add that throughout history our kings have had many other crowns made for themselves. This very abstract veneration was reserved exclusively for the Holy Crown. In international relations, the Holy Crown became the symbol of the Hungarian state from the 14th century onwards. After the Battle of Mohács (1526), Hungary was divided into three parts. From then on, the Holy Crown became a symbol of the unity of the country and the nation. During the reign of Joseph II, the crown was transferred to the Vienna Treasury (1784-1790). The King deliberately did not crown himself. He did not want to fulfil his constitutional obligations. After World War II, the crown was transferred from the occupying Germans to the USA. It was returned to Hungary in 1978.

Keywords: Holy Crown, legitimacy, state power, public law, tradition

Melánia Nagy  – Dóra Ripszám: Abuse of a Minor in the light of begging

Protecting our children is the cornerstone of our society. Throughout Europe, the problem of begging is closely linked to poverty, and throughout history the term ‘poor’ has encompassed, among others, beggars, unmarried adults, orphans and displaced children. Begging in the company of a child automatically raises suspicion of a crime if the child is used by a parent or legal guardian. If there is child begging, the facts are twofold. When children are begging, institutions have a duty to act, but in reality this rarely happens.

Keywords: child, minor, child endangerment, child abuse, begging

Franciska Regős: The development of responsibility for internationally wrongful acts, with particular reference to the codification work of the International Law Commission

The codification of the international responsibility of states cannot be described as a smooth road. The starting point for early codification efforts was primarily the responsibility for damage caused to foreigners. This was, inter alia, the approach taken at the 1930 codification conference in The Hague and later by the International Law Commission. During nearly 50 years of work, it became clear that it was impossible to deal with the various sub-areas without clarifying the general rules on the responsibility of states under international law. This paper aims to explore the stages in the development of state responsibility, with particular attention to the work of the International Law Commission and the resulting draft articles, which are reflected in the case law of international courts, particularly the International Court of Justice.

Keywords: International law, responsibility, International Law Commission

Franciska Regős: Environmental cases of the WTO

International trade law has far-reaching implications for environmental protection at both national and international levels. It is difficult to reconcile trade objectives with environmental objectives, which often leads to conflicts. As environmental protection has grown, various nations have introduced more and more conservation measures, which in many cases have conflicted with the commercial interests of other states. Not surprisingly, a number of these disputes have been brought before the WTO dispute settlement mechanism, which has involved the application of international environmental law. The purpose of this paper is to explore these cases and identify their implications for international environmental law. By examining the relevant cases, this paper concludes that the WTO seems to be opening up to the application of international environmental law, which has an impact on the outcome of some disputes.

Keywords: WTO, reformulated gasoline, beef hormones, shrimp-turtle, international environmental law

Dóra Ripszam: Criminal exploitation related to child trafficking

In my writing, I seek a comprehensive overview of child trafficking in relation to criminal exploitation, I deal with the image of forced crime, a brief outline of the forms of crime committed by victims of human trafficking, and the specific situation of victims in this area. My study is descriptive, based on secondary research, in connection with which I have used both primary and secondary sources. During my research, I mainly reviewed the relevant domestic and international sources of law and studies related to the topic. My aim is to explore the characteristics of the criminal exploitation of victims of child trafficking and to demonstrate that the importance of this form of exploitation is undervalued. Children who are trafficked are often exploited through forced criminal activity, yet it is very difficult to find statistics on this. These children are often mistakenly identified as the offenders of the crime.

Keywords: child trafficking, criminal exploitation, pickpocketing

Abstracts in historical studies

Bernadett Zsuzsanna Apró: Attitudes concerning prostitution in the dualist era Hungary

In dualist Hungary, much importance was given to prostitution, among other fields, because of its impact on public health and morality. Therefore, commercial sexuality was frequently analysed as part of the national vision of death and eugenics strategy. Since we have no direct insight into prostitution as a highly taboo behaviour, it can be best analysed through reflections. The purpose of my study is to show, through moral reflection, how people’s attitudes of the time were to prostitution, what medical aspects it had, and why the issue of prostitution was so prominent in public discourse. I will examine from this point of view how the Hungarian Association Against the Trafficking of Girls (later the Association), as a humanitarian organisation with substantial state funding, viewed prostitution, how it fitted into the public perception of prostitution at the time, or how it turned against the public opinion. The questionnaires that the Association’s patronage staff made with prostitute candidates between 1912 and 1913, which are also the subject of this study, are excellent source material for this purpose.

Keywords: dualist era in Hungary, prostitution, moral reflections, eugenics, human trafficking against women, Hungarian Association Against the Trafficking of Girls

Krisztián Bödő: The characteristics of rational estate management in some Fejér county manors in the middle of the 19th century in the light of the contemporary press

In 1853, the agronomist László Korizmics visited some manors in Fejér county to observe the development of agriculture. In his multi-page article about the trip, as a basis of comparison, he briefly touched on the characteristics of the Ercsi manor, on the economic activities of Baron Lilien, whose influence he could discover on the estates he visited. In the study, we present the development of the Ercsi manor at the beginning of the 19th century, and then, based on Korizmcs article, we examine the respective farms in three main questions. How did plant culture and field cultivation expand, what agrotechnical changes did it go through, so what characterizes mechanization? How did animal husbandry, especially sheep farming change? Who were the tenants and property managers, who were the driving forces and supporters of the development, so what role did the personnel apparatus of each farm play in the changes during this transition period? The written sources of these estates are damaged or completely destroyed, so our source is mainly the press of the 1850s, especially Gazdasági Lapok edited by László Korizmics.

Keywords: agriculture, manor, agricultural technology, sheep farming

Eszter Juhász: Catholic nuns at the service of the poor in Hungary between the two world wars

One of the biggest problems in Hungary between the two world wars was poverty and its handling. The defeat of World War I, the Aster Revolution and the Hungarian Soviet Republic, and the Treaty of Trianon, the territorial, economic, and demographical damages resulted in fundamental social and economic changes. The State and the Churches had to take more responsibility for serving the poor. The social policy was born in this era, this was the first time the State started taking a role in the poor-relief not just in Hungary but in whole Europe. Although the part of the State increased, it wasn’t enough. The catholic nuns presented in this study dedicated their lives to serving the poor.

Keywords: social policy, poor-relief, Hungarian Catholic Church, catholic nuns

Nikoletta Kiss-Mikó: One of the most notable members of the Ráday family – The estateorganizing work of Pál I. Ráday in the 18th century

Undoubtedly, one of the most important member of the Ráday family has been Pál I. Ráday, public notary of Nógrád County since 1699, taking an active part in the Rákóczi freedom fight from 1703. Many publications deal with these subjects, while the history of the estates, establishing the fortune of Pál, passed by to him from his father in the early 1700s, could not by traced easily. Thus, in this paper I, by examining archival records, try to examine this question. The Ráday estate, consisting of 80-12 serf lots, relied on the less developed two-year agricultural methods, in some places using the three-year method, thus only cultivating on a small percentage of the fields at hand. On other parts the situation has been even less ideal: small farms followed the archaic, steppic extensive livestock breeding practices. Due to the outstanding organizing and management skills of Pál, and his wife, incomes from this problematic background has allowed for the construction of a new family mansion.

It has been an important factor, that the financial balance of the Ráday family has swifted to the northern parts of the country, that Pál choose Alsó-Ludány in Nógrád County, as his new center of management, and as the new family residence too. There has been built between 1700 and 1702 the „Ludány House”, which has been expanded to be a castle by him.

Keywords: 18th century, Alsó-Ludány, estate-history, nobility, Ráday family, Pál Ráday

Anna Mérész  – Ferenc Pálházy: The national census of taxpayers in 1828 on the example of Szolnok

The national census of taxpayers in 1828 (Conscriptio Regnicolaris) and the Rectificata Conscriptio Regnicolaris in 1833 are part of the historical-statistical sources about society, from which we used the set of documents from Szolnok. The literature’s critical analysis and a the source material’s detailed presentation are an important for a more accurate use of the data in the documents. Having established that a one-to-one transposition of the Latus does not lead to accurate results, it is necessary to take the rectifications into account. We present how many individuals are directly or indirectly linked to the census, in addition to the taxable heads of household listed by name. For the statistical calculation, we have prepared our database in form of an Excel spreadsheet based on the rectification to the national census of taxpayers. From the results of our descriptive statistical calculations, only those relating to sex and age groups are reported and interpreted. Concerning gender, we present 1665 persons’ data, while concerning the age group, the distribution of 3551 persons aged between 18 and 60 years and aged over 60 years.

Keywords: Conscriptio Regnicolaris, Rectificata Coscriptio Regnicolaris, national census of taxpayers in 1828, rectification in 1833, Szolnok, household, head of household, sex distribution, age group

Adrienn Purcsi: The question of nationality in the thinking of Gyula Szekfű

The issue of nationality and the revision was one of the central elements of the public issues of Hungary between the two world wars, so it can be said that the study makes a popular topic the subject of contemporary investigation. Through the thinking of two significant public figures, Gyula Szekfű –he was a historian, cultural politician, editor and the defining and most influential political thinker of the era- and István Bethlen –prime Minister of Hungary between 1921 and 1931–, it presents the main features and central elements of their ideas on the issue of nationality, and how they were connected to one of the revisionist ideas appearing in the era. When preparing the study, we reviewed the entire oeuvre of Gyula Szekfű and István Bethlen and selected the most relevant writings from the topic’s point of view. The raison d’être of this article lies in the fact that although one study has been published in both subject, the thinking of the two of them has not been examined in detail at the same time. Furthermore, in the case of Gyula Szekfű, the presentation of medieval minority policy studies and its connection to the St. Stephen’s nationality policy appearing the era between the two world wars –Horthy era– and to the idea of the state itself is not given a role. The thesis therefore shows how the person of St. Stephen appeared in the public thinking of the Horthy era, and why his politics were actually popular. The thesis greatly complements the published studies on the topic, opening up opportunities for new research.

Keywords: Gyula Szekfű, István Bethlen, Horthy era, issue of nationality, revision

Vivien Rapali: “Life is hard here” – László Karácsonyi’s american letters from 1957 – Reflections on the margins of an academic engineer attempt to emigrate

In the spring of 1957, László Karácsonyi (1900-1985), one of the leading authorities in agricultural chemistry in Hungary, chemical engineer and university professor, sends a letter to his former American colleague, William F. Geddes (1896–1961) to help him leave Hungary. The message, sent to Minneapolis by an anonymous courier under adventurous circumstances, met with a positive response, and Karácsonyi not only received a reply to his letter, but also an opportunity to emigrate. The Hungarian-American correspondence, reported in this paper, provides a vivid picture of the opportunities for Hungarian scientific engineers after 1956 and a good example of existing the professional network that was able to function in the post-war era.

Keywords: 1956, technical intellectuals, emigration, engineer, Budapest University of Technology and Economics

Gergő Segesdi: Royal defense act in the kingdom without a king – Debates about the legal facilities of the republican propaganda in the 1920’s Hungarian national assembly

The main focus of this study is the legal regulation of republican propaganda in the 1920s which is one of the critical aspects of the appearance of republican ideas in Hungary during the Horthy era. The article of law that significantly determined the facilities of the republican propaganda no. XXXIV. of year 1913. This law article had a substantial limiting force because it imposed a serious penalty for those who offended the king’s person or exerted activity for the termination of the institute of the monarchy. Although this was created in 1913 against György Nagy and his republican movement, it still has been used in the 1920′ and condemned such republican public figures like Imre Veér. During István Bethlen’s prime minister, they regularly tried to stop every kind of republican propaganda and referred to law no. XXXIV. of year 1913 is still valid. At the same time, the opposition of the Horthy-era denied the validity of this law and demanded the abolition of this law. They connected its issue with Habsburg propaganda, the government’s double standards, foreign relations, constitutional rights, the suffrage law, and the law of the upper house.

Keywords: Horthy-era, Hungarian national assembly, republicanism, law no. XXXIV. of year 1913

Krisztián Attila Timári: Publicity and influence – The press of the Habsburg Empire under II. Joseph during the preparation period of the war against the turks

The Ottoman Empire had been at war with the Russian Empire, allied to the Viennese court, since the end of August 1787. The news of the Russo-Ottoman war spread quickly throughout the Habsburg Empire and immediately became the main topic in the printed press. Months of military and economic preparations for the war were made with the full attention of the press organs. But the flow, distribution, and rewriting of the news were unique to each newspaper. The entry into the war was a political interest. The newspaper editors were under the impression that they were presenting to the reading public an idealized and justified picture of war. The censors and the censorship system, which varied from area to area, made the overall picture even more interesting. Finally, in early February 1788, the Habsburg Empire declared war on the Ottoman Empire. The aim of the study is also to present the most interesting topics and events before the war.

Keywords: war, diplomacy, press, censorship, Habsburg Empire, newspaper

Róbert Vendriczki: The Chronicle of Nagyfüged – The society and economy of Nagyfüged in the 17–18th centuries

Nagyfüged was included in the „Turkish occupation” in the early stages of Turkish rule. Still, it became a war zone, and as a result, the village was destroyed several times, or its inhabitants abandoned it due to the battles. After the expulsion of the Turks, it was quickly repopulated. However, during the Rákóczi War of Independence, the village was depopulated again, and its population either fled or fought under the banner of Ferenc Rákóczi against the Habsburg Empire. After the cessation of hostilities in 1712, it was already considered an inhabited settlement, where the largest landowner was the Almásy family. After the situation of the village stabilized, development began, which culminated in the 1730s and 1740s, which was facilitated by the increase and cultivation of agricultural land and the expansion of animal husbandry and trade in the county of Heves. As a result, the minor nobility and Jews also appeared in contemporary Nagyfüged. The ideas of the Enlightenment in the form of public welfare also affected the population through the measures taken by the Habsburg rulers, and the subsidies of the landlords also indirectly contributed to the development.

Keywords: War, depopulation, settlement, development, stability, serf, agriculture, Almásy family, Habsburg Empire, public welfare

ÚJKOR – ÚJ KOR? abstracts

Cultural history

Gábor Ambrózy: The Hungarian Political Literature at the End of the 1780s and Its Aspects of Infrastructure Development

The political pamphlet literature at the end of the 18th century written mainly by the antijosephinist Hungarian conservative nobility can be regarded as a relatively undiscovered area of our historical research, even though the last months of the rule of Joseph II, (Holy Roman Emperor 1765-1790, ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy 1780-1790) got into a turmoil considering its unity and stability. Joseph II’s program was to create an economically integrated and strong Habsburg monarchy with centralized state administration; however, by the time of his death the empire had been showing the signs of disintegration. These pieces of writing, pamphlets, commercial drafts, memoirs of the inner members of the state administration offer a significant insight into this turbulent period. This study is to highlight some of these documents especially the political pamphlets of the primate, József Batthyány, and those of his brother Tivadar Batthyány.

Keywords: Josephinism, The Batthyány family, Church policy, constitutionalism, History of transportation

Réka Zsidai: Principles of John Locke and J. J. Rousseau in practice. The upbringing of László Festetics (1785– 1846) in the spirit of the Enlightenment and in the light of the documents governing today’s education

At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, one of the defining figures of the Hungarian Enlightenment was Count György Festetics. Due to his rank and social status, the Count of Keszthely paid close attention to the upbringing of his son, Count László, in line with the expectations of the period. György Festetics hired the highly educated József Péteri Takáts in 1790 then István Kultsár in 1799 as his son’s tutor.

Count László’s upbringing was primarily determined by the principles of J. J. Rousseau and John Locke. These laws governing modern teaching, such as the National Core Curriculum and the Pedagogical Programme, have clear roots. The sources confirm that at the heart of László’s upbringing was the preparation for a life in office and court, which was for the service of the common good.

In my study, I present the basic principles of contemporary education, such as moral, intellectual and physical education in the light of the National Core Curriculum in force.

Keywords: László Festetics, enlightenment, education, pedagogy, John Locke, J. J. Rousseau, educator, commonwealth, National Core Curriculum, Pedagogical Programme, teacher competence, instructions

Institutional history and administration

Dénes Lőrinczy: Additions to the Public Security of Sepsiszentgyörgy (1877–1913)

The modernization of the counties in 1876 determined the administrative division of Székely settlements until the end of World War I. The new county seat became Sfântu Gheorghe. In the Austro-Hungarian period, the local government maintained its own police authority from private budget, which had the direct responsibility of sustaining personal and financial security of the town. However, over the years the number and the capability of the crew turned out to be insufficient, therefore local authorities decided to hire the crew of the Hungarian Royal Gendarmerie.

According to the register of the Gendarmerie, the department from Sfântu Gheorghe belonged to dictrict I’s second wing’s first section, with a total number of 8 serving gendarmes.  They were explicitly responsible for the neighbouring villages and territories.

The local government of Sfântu Gheorghe continously tried to develop the town’s gendarmerie department despite lacking financial resources. These desperate attempts to stabilize public security were suspended by the outbreak of the First World War.

Keywords: public safety, local government, local police, matter of public safety in Saint George, Hungarian gendarmerie

István Pap: The birth of a bank

Born in Trieste in 1879, Camillo Castiglioni is one of the most influential persons in European industrial and banking history. At the beginning of the 20th century he took part in the establishing and financing of a number of major companies. His key achievement is still the construction of aircraft factories, including MLG and Ufag, and his role in the launch of the BMW machine factory and the foundation of its economic success. He set up several banks, and his financial talents did not leave him during the years of World War I and the Great Depression. He was one of Europe’s most important financial professionals and business owners until fascism came to power. Because of his Jewish ancestry, he eventually had to hide and survived World War II as a disguised monk.

In 1920 with the fusion of the Incorporated Credit Institution of the Hungarian Timber-Merchants and the Hungarian National Bank, and with the participation of the Banca Commerciale Italiana and the Allgemeine Depositenbank, Camillo Castiglioni established the Hungarian-Italian Bank, which was one of the most important banks of the Horthy-era. During the Great Depression the balance-sheet of the bank approached 36 million dollars. The Great Depression, followed by  the fixed currency exchange rates and the difficulties of the foreign payment transactions barely inhibited the foreign business of the bank. After World War II it was liquidated without any successor.

Keywords: Camillo Castiglioni, Hungarian-Italian Bank, World War I, History of banking, industrial companies, Great Depression

Military history

Norbert Keserű: Gábor Egressy as government commissioner in 1848 – 1849 Hungarian revolution and war of independence

Gábor Egressy was an important person of the Hungarian Reform Age. He was one of the most known actors, he made Shakespeare plays known in Hungary. He was a good friend to Sándor Petőfi, the most famous poet in Hungary. Egressy joined the Hungarian revolution in 1848 and he fought in the War of independence. In the further reading section there are not many pieces of information about his activity, my aim is to collect the information in my dissertation. Egressy was a government commissioner at the end of 1848 – in this study I write about this period using the further reading and the archives’ sources. His main tasks were to organise the home guard’s equipment, food and to persuade the City of Szeged to exhibit recruiters. Some of the studies show Egressy incompetent, but considering the difficulty of the function and the historical background, he did what he could and the government appreciated his work – later he was a captain general of a ”guerrilla” army in Borsod County.

Keywords: Government commissioner, National Defense Commission, National guard, Southern Serbian uprising, Guerilla (warfare)

Márton Mati: The role of the Hungarian Red Cross Mission in the Siberian pows’ repatriation

More than 1.5 million Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war were held in captivity by the Entente forces during the First World War. Most of these prisoners were kept in rural Russia, mainly in the deserted Siberia. The majority of these soldiers were still held in captivity after the capitulation of the Dual Monarchy in 1918. After the devastation of the war, the abandoned  Hungary did not have the power and the resources to repatriate some of these soldiers, especially those, who were kept in the Far-Eastern region of Russia.

This study explores how Hungary tried to repatriate thousands of Hungarian POWs back to their homeland jointly with the International Committee of the Red Cross and other Hungarian-related American civil associations.

This mission was a success despite difficulties, such as money shortage, civil war between various Russian factions, and the ignorance of the Entente Powers. Captain Geza Dell’Adami, who led the Hungarian Red Cross Mission, managed to rescue more than 13000 POWs from the easternmost part of Siberia.

Keywords: captivity, the Eastern Front and the Far East, First world war, International Committee of the Red Cross, Hungarian prisoners of war

Róbert Vendriczki: A Spy Game in Vietnam – The Hungarian mission in Vietnam in the light of archival sources of the Pax residency

In 1954, the Geneva Accords established the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and the Republic of Vietnam (RV), but the convention did not bring peace and the war continued. The treaty to end the Vietnam War was signed in Paris on 27 January 1973. This agreement guaranteed the establishment of the International Commission of Control and Supervision (ICCS), in which Hungary also served between 1973-75. The Hungarian mission served in three shifts in South Vietnam, within the framework of which the Pax residency was also established. In addition to its duties at the ICCS, as defined by the Paris Convention, the residency also had to perform additional operational and information tasks. Along with the Hungarian military Intelligence Service, they supported Moscow, North Vietnam, and the Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam (PRG). In 1974, an outstanding result was achieved in the field of »dark« information acquisition, and thus the work of the residency became more valuable for the communist side. Hungarian intelligence activity continued until the fall of Saigon, on April 30, 1975. During the siege, the Hungarian contingent was withdrawn with American assistance and left the country on May 8.

Keywords: Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Republic of Vietnam, International Commission of Control and Supervision, Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam, Pax residency, Paris Convention, Moscow, Saigon, Intelligence collecting, Hungarian Mission

Social history

Gergő Segesdi: The republican issue in the Hungarian public discourse between 1918 and 1928

The ideas of republic and republicanism do not belong to the major strata of Hungarian history. Still, the question can be asked how, after such a controversial attempt as the 1918 Károlyi-republic, the idea appeared in an atmosphere the legitimacy of which was mostly based on the rejection of the revolutionary system. Was it apparent during the era known as the Horthy-regime? The short answer is, yes. In the beginning of the 1920s many in political public life spoke out for the republic. First of all, we have to mention the republican movement of György Nagy, which had been a proponent of the republic even pre-WW1. Next, we ought to look at the social democrats, whose attitude towards the question was seriously regulated by the so-called Bethlen-Peyer Pact. Finally, we need to mention those outside of these two groups, who still voiced their support to the idea of the republic. The three groups listed have common ideas concerning the structure of the republic, as its realisation must be peaceful and legal. Another commonality is the fact that they were targeted by the authorities, some more than others.

Keywords: Horthy-era, republic, republicanism, left-wing politics

Eszter Juhász: An “Impossible” Catholic Church in the heart of the Capital – Years of the Formation, 1945-1952

Following World War II the Hungarian Catholic Church had to face many challenges: not only the shock following the defeat, but also the appearance of the danger of communism, represented by the Soviet Union. In 1947 cardinal József Mindszenty, archbishop of Esztergom reorganized the system of the decanal districts, in order to better serve the congregation living there. The newly organized vicarages were given new leaders; the Church of Saint Rita was placed under the leadership of dr. János Galambos. Galambos asked for and received Saint Rita (who was known to be the patron of “impossible matters”) as the patron saint of the parish. On the 1st of April 1946 with the appointment of Cardinal Mindszenty the new vicarage was formed and was endowed with full parish authority given by the chief pastor. People were just pouring into this “odd little church” – that initially had no shape or form of a church – seeking the patronage of Saint Rita. Therefore the pastor introduced an official form of reverence; the Saint Rita Thursdays with Mass, Sermon and Litany. János Galambos kept up and evolved the young community with a firm hand, which soon caught the attention of the authorities. In September of 1952 he was transferred to another parish. In the ’50s, an enormous number of priests served here for longer or shorter periods, either officially or not.

Immediately upon founding, various bodies of religious life began to function, and spiritual life began. The caritas and the soup-kitchen were constantly operating, they visited the sick and the poor in the neighborhood. But the political events of the upcoming years limited the operation of these bodies.

Meanwhile the biggest task was to build a proper church. A tire repair shop, a soda water plant and a shed with crumbling walls – these were the bases and components that eventually came together as a church that was finally consecrated as a chapel in the fall of 1947 by Cardinal Mindszenty. The cult of Saint Rita began within the walls of this church and still enjoys unbroken popularity throughout the country and even beyond borders. The essay attempts to present the formation of this unique, non-church-like church, its priesthood, and most importantly the Catholic community and the spiritual life that still surrounds it today.

Keywords: Saint Rita, Hungarian Catholic Church, communism, Church policy, Rákosi-era

Tamás Madácsy: The appearance of the Hungarian Democratic Forum’s Zala County organisations in the local public sphere in 1988-1989

In my thesis, I attempted to illustrate through local press publications how the followers and representatives of an intellectual movement named Hungarian Democratic Forum – later the founders of its Zala County organisations -, who were almost silenced in the autumn of 1988, reached the point where twelve months later they were able to send their own candidate to the last state party parliament. After becoming a party in 1989, the Hungarian Democratic Forum (Magyar Demokrata Fórum – MDF) won the first free parliamentary elections a year later.

Our two years of oral history research on this topic covered the whole of rural Hungary and resulted in the recording of audio and visual material from 60 conversations. The history of politics in the county during the years of the system transition is supplemented by a number of useful contributions from oral history interviews with participants who recall the events. The three decades that have passed provide enough of a distance for the participants of the events to draw the necessary conclusions and share the history of the political changes in the countryside from a personal viewpoint, complemented with details not found in other sources.

Keywords: system change (Political Transition), social movement, Hungarian Democratic Forum, Lakitelek Meeting, local publicity

KRE-DIt 2022/1 Absztraktok

Hittudományi absztraktok

Balogh Péter: A keresztyének egységének szerepe a misszióban. Pál apostol és társai összefogásának példája

A tanulmány a missziológia tárgykörében vizsgálja az egység szerepét. Megállapíthatjuk, hogy a keresztyének egysége önmagában is szolgálja a misszió ügyét, mert a megélt szeretet vonzóvá teszi a közösséghez tartozást. Emellett az aktív missziós szerepvállalás hatékonyságában is nélkülözhetetlen az együttműködés, a szolgálati ajándékok összehangolt egysége. A missziológia szakirodalmára támaszkodva vizsgáljuk a kapcsolatok szerepét a közösségen belül és kívül ható erővonalak mentén. Röviden összegezzük Pál apostol társkapcsolatokra vonatkozó tanítását, amelyet írásain túl élete példájával is bemutat. Személyes kapcsolatai, munkatársi köre és gyülekezeti kötődései mintaként állnak előttünk, amely segíti a vezetőket, hogy az együttműködést munkálják, és a gyülekezet tagjait, hogy munkatársként ismerjék fel és töltsék be szerepüket a test összehangolt egységében.

Kulcsszavak: misszió, egység, kapcsolat, Pál apostol

Jakabné Köves Gyopárka: A szövetségi teológia módszertana

A szövetségi teológia módszertani megközelítései, megoldási kísérletei, és egyben problematikája a 16. századi kezdetektől napjainkig az egység és pluralitás feszültségével viaskodott. A szövetségi teológia a kezdetektől szigorúan ragaszkodott az exegétikai alapú magyarázatokhoz. Ugyanakkor azzal, hogy a szövetségi teológia legtöbb képviselőjénél megjelenik a terminológiában és a rendszeres felosztásban a két, vagy három szövetség alapvető megkülönböztetése, megosztja a szövetségi teológiát és két irányzatra osztja azt. Jelen tanulmány bemutatja, mire alapozza a protestáns szövetségi teológia a cselekedeti szövetség, valamint a pactum salutis intézményét a kegyelmi szövetség mellett, emellett ismerteti azokat a kritikákat, amelyek Isten szövetségét kizárólag kegyelminek tekintik. A diakronikus vizsgálat során felmerül a kérdés, milyen viszonyban állt a szövetségi teológia a rámista módszerrel. A tanulmányban felmutatom a szoros kapcsolatot, miközben amellett érvelek, hogy a két szövetségre épülő teológiai elképzelés nem a rámizmus hatása.

Kulcsszavak: szövetségi teológia, módszertan, cselekedeti szövetség, kegyelmi szövetség, pactum salutis, rámizmus

Pétery Schmidt Zsolt: Mitől teológiai a teológia? Colin Gunton és John Webster bevezetése a dogmatika világába

A tanulmány a teológia tudományának megkülönböztető sajátosságát keresi Colin E. Gunton (1941-2003) és John B. Webster (1955-2016) dogmatika prolegomenához sorolható művei nyomán. A szerzők a magyar nyelvű szakirodalom tükrében nem nevezhetők ismertnek, de nemzetközileg fontosnak mondhatók, szakterületüknek (a teremtéstannak és szentháromságtannak, illetve Eberhard Jüngel és Karl Barth teológiájának) elismert kutatói. A tanulmány Gunton The One, the Three and the Many című könyve nyomán számot vet a kortárs teológia kontextusát adó modern kultúrával. Ebben a kontextusban a Webstertől kölcsönzött tautológia (theological theology) segít abban, hogy a teológia maradandó értékére felfigyeljünk. A tautológia feloldását a protestáns rendszeres teológia abban találhatja meg, ha a dogmatikát mint a szent tudományát kezeli. Ehhez fontos számolni a következő paradoxonnal: a teológia nem fogadhatja el a tudományok antropológiai alapvetését, de mégsem lehet kirekeszteni a tudományok világából, anélkül, hogy ezzel megkérdőjeleznénk a tudományos kutatás alapjául szolgáló véleménypluralizmust. A dolgozat konklúziója a következő: „Mitől teológiai teológia? Attól, hogy Isten lényegét a megszentelt emberi gondolkodáson keresztül felelősségteljesen tükrözi vissza a világban. Ebben a teológia intézményesen mint egyház jelenik meg az élet minden területén.”

Kulcsszavak: Webster, Gunton, teológiai teológia, modernitás, dogmatika prolegomena, szent

Stifler Zoltánné: “Semper reformanda” a digitális kor keretei között német és magyar nyelvterületeken

„Semper reformanda”- Az egyház mindig megújulásra szorul. Nem ismeretlen ez a gondolat a 21.századi egyháznak sem. A digitalizáció által új utak nyíltak meg az evangélium hirdetésére. Ezeket az utakat pedig alaposan meg kell ismerni, tanulmányozni és teológiailag megalapozottá kell tenni. Talán nem túlzás azt állítani, hogy új teológiai diszciplína van kibontakozóban. E jelen tanulmány a médiumok és az egyház kapcsolatát volt hivatott vizsgálni fokozott figyelemmel a svájci, német és magyar területeken. A külföldi és beföldi eredményeket látva a legnagyobb hangsúly a tömegmédia hatásosságára és használhatóságára és kommunikációs aspektusaira esik. Kitértem a posztmodern kor hozta kommunikációs problémákra, hogy ezzel is árnyaltabb képet kaphassunk a médiumok társadalomra gyakorolt hatásáról.

Kulcsszavak: Semper reformanda, digitális, kommunikáció, médiumok, posztmodern, egyház, megújulás

Jogtudományi absztraktok

Adler Brigitta: Protokoll és jogok – problémafelvetés a szülészeti ellátást meghatározó szokásokról

A tanulmány célja, hogy a Magyarországon kialakult és megszilárdult szülészeti ellátás néhány alapvető szokásán keresztül – kritikai elemzés keretében – bemutassa a szülészeti rendszer működését, jellemző vonásait, ezen keresztül pedig felhívja a figyelmet annak káros gyakorlataira.

A tanulmány külön kitér többek közt a beleegyezés és önrendelkezés kérdésére; így érint egyes rutin lépéseket, mint például a szülés során megtiltott szabad mozgást, az indikáció nélkül végzett gátmetszést; vagy épp a paternalizmust.

A bizonyítékokon alapuló orvoslás eredményeivel összhangban kijelenthető, hogy a tanulmányban bemutatott rutinszerű, jogsértő gyakorlatok általánossá tételét sem orvosi, sem jogi, sem pedig etikai szempontból nem lehet igazolni. A tanulmány konklúziójaként kimondható, hogy szükséges az ellátás minőségét meghatározó házirendek, protokollok és szokások felülvizsgálata, továbbá az országosan egységes eljárásrend kialakítása.

Kulcsszavak: szülészet, szülészeti szokásjog, betegjogok, perinatális jogsértések, méltóságteljes szülés.

Holló Róbert: Az amerikai indiánok önrendelkezéshez való joga

Nincs szentebb jog egy nemzet, egy nép számára, mint, hogy szabadon, minden külső beavatkozás nélkül meghatározhatja kulturális, gazdasági, társadalmi és – természetesen – politikai jövőjét. Ennek a jognak a legteljesebb megvalósulásáról akkor beszélhetünk, ha a nemzetek szabadon kormányozhatják magukat. Amikor ez bekövetkezik, azt önrendelkezési jognak nevezzük; amikor pedig gyakorolják, akkor önkormányzásnak.

Marshall főbíró indiánjogi munkájától és számos más mérföldkőnek számító döntésétől kezdve, más jogszabályokon keresztül, az 1975-ös indián önrendelkezési és oktatási támogatási törvény (ISDEAA) lett az Egyesült Államok modern szövetségi indiánpolitikájának sarokköve. Az ISDEAA 1988-as módosítása kibővítette a törzsi önkormányzatiságot, hozzásegítve az amerikai őslakos nemzeteket az önrendelkezési szabadságukhoz való visszatéréshez, amely egykoron a törzsi szuverenitásukból eredt. A törzsi önkormányzatiság szélesebb körű mozgalmának törvényi megalapozásával a törzsi törvényhozás, és annak parlamenti jellegű különleges testületi formációinak elismerése azt segítette elő, hogy az indián nemzetek jobb minőség kormányzást tudjanak biztosítani tagjaik számára, mind a távoli szövetségi bürokrácia. Az 1994-es és 2000-es évek későbbi jogalkotása, valamint a kibővített és finomított önigazgatási politika olyan sikeresnek bizonyult, hogy ma már a szövetségi indián nemzetek több mint fele létrehozott valamilyen testületet saját jogalkotására, és úgy döntött, hogy ügyeiket saját maguk intézik, nem pedig szövetségi ügynökségek.

Ez a cikk áttekinti a modern amerikai szövetségi indián politika történetét, valamint megvilágítja az önkormányzatiság és a törzsi jogalkotás alapvető jogforrásait, elemeit, rámutat a jelentősebb kihívásokra, és ötleteket vet fel az elkövetkező évek lehetséges irányaira.

Kulcsszavak: USA, őslakos nemzetek, önrendelkezés, önkormányzás, törzsi jogalkotás

Lajos Edina: Az emberi jogok védelmezése vagy a közigazgatás visszásságainak orvoslása?

Az intézmény gyökerei az 1700-as évek elejének Svédországáig vezetnek bennünket. Az ombudsman fogalmi körébe tartozó tisztségviselőket nemzetközi összevetésben sokféle névvel illetik, például nép ügyvédje, szószóló, nép jogvédő, mediátor stb… Az ombudsman klasszikusan a közigazgatás visszaéléseinek, méltánytalanságainak ellensúlyozására hivatott tisztségviselő volt. Emellett nemzetközi szinten mára elterjedt jelentése szerint az emberi jogok védelmezője.

Álláspontunk szerint e két megközelítés között nemhogy nem áll fenn ellentmondás, de a fogalmak kölcsönösen előfeltételezik is egymást. Az ombudsmanok eszköze az ajánlás, tehát „saft law”-t alkalmaznak, ami nem kikényszeríthető. A rendszerváltozást követően hazánkban az állampolgári jogok országgyűlési biztosa töltötte be az általános ombudsmani funkciót, illetve volt két külön biztos. Az új rendszer egyfejűvé tette a struktúrát. Az alapvető jogok biztosa az általános ombudsman, akinek két helyettese van. Az egyik a jövő nemzedékek jogaiért, a másik a nemzetiségek jogaiért felel. A parlament az alapvető jogok biztosát azok közül a kiemelkedő tudású elméleti vagy legalább tízévi szakmai gyakorlattal rendelkező jogászok közül választja meg az összes képviselő legalább kétharmadának voksával, akik harmincötödik életévüket betöltötték, és az alapvető jogokat érintő eljárások lefolytatásában, felügyeletében vagy tudományos elméletében jelentős tapasztalatokkal rendelkeznek. A jelölés joga az államfőé. Az ombudsmanhoz a közigazgatás működésének visszássága esetén lehet fordulni. Nem csupán közigazgatási, hanem közszolgáltatást végző szervet is ellenőrizhet a biztos.

Az alapvető jogok biztosa nem vizsgálhatja az Országgyűlés, a köztársasági elnök, az Alkotmánybíróság, az Állami Számvevőszék, a bíróság, valamint az ügyészség nyomozást végző szerve kivételével az ügyészség tevékenységét. Az ombudsman kezdeményezni a ügyész fellépését, tehet büntetőfeljelentést, utólagos normakontrollt kérhet az Alkotmánybíróságtól.

Kulcsszavak: alapvető jogok biztosa, alapjogvédelem, visszásság, ombudsmani vizsgálat

Molnár Péter: Terminológiai változások az elektronikus közigazgatás területén

Az elektronikus közigazgatáshoz köthető jelenségek köre a technológia fejlődésével napról-napra bővül. A digitalizáció korában az e-közigazgatással összefüggő fogalmak értelmezése sok nehézséget okoz a gyakorló szakembereknek és a kutatóknak egyaránt. Írásomban – elsősorban a hazai és nemzetközi szakirodalomra támaszkodva – az egyes, a tárgyban gyakran használt kifejezések mögött rejlő jelentések feltárására teszek kísérletet, értelmezve az elektronikus közigazgatás, az elektronikus kormányzás és az elektronikus ügyintézés fogalmait, valamint az „elektronikus” és a „digitális közigazgatás” kifejezések közötti különbséget.

Kulcsszavak: közigazgatás, elektronikus közigazgatás, digitalizáció, digitális közigazgatás, elektronikus ügyintézés

Ripszám Dóra: A veszélyhelyzetről röviden, különös tekintettel annak aktualitására

A különleges jogrendet általánosságban olyan kivételes, szükség- vagy válsághelyzetben lehet bevezetni, amely a normális jogrend keretei között, a meglévő jogszabályok, illetve eljárások útján nem kezelhető eredményesen.

A különleges jogrenden belül is speciálisnak tekinthető a veszélyhelyzet, hiszen ez az egyetlen olyan eleme, amely nem az állam fegyveres védelmére irányul.

Részben a koronavírus járvány kapcsán kihirdetett veszélyhelyzet vezetett az Alaptörvény 9. módosításához, melynek értelmében a veszélyhelyzet szabályozása 2023. július 1-től a következők szerint alakul: „A Kormány az élet- és vagyonbiztonságot veszélyeztető súlyos esemény – különösen elemi csapás vagy ipari szerencsétlenség – esetén, valamint ezek következményeinek az elhárítása érdekében veszélyhelyzetet hirdethet ki.

Kulcsszavak: különleges jogrend, veszélyhelyzet, koronavírus, járvány

Szabó Imre Szilárd: Munkajogi kérdések az országgyűlési választásokról

Az országgyűlési választások időpontja nem minősül munkaszüneti napnak, így az ahhoz kapcsolódó eltérő munkajogi szabályok sem kerülnek munkajogi szempontból figyelembevételre. A gyakorlatban így sokszor jelentős kihívást okoz, hogy az általános munkarendtől eltérően munkát végző munkavállaló hogyan tud élni az Alaptörvényben rögzített szavazati jogával. A dolgozatban egyrészt ennek a problematikának a feloldására teszek – vázlatos – kísérletet, másrészt ismertetem, a választási eljárásban – alapvetően önkéntes részvétel alapján – munkát végző szavazatszámláló bizottság tagjaira vonatkozó munkajogi szabályokat; jelezve azt a szabályozási hiátust, ahol jogalkotó beavatkozása válhat szükségessé.

Kulcsszavak: munkajog, választások, szavazás, szavazatszámláló, szavazati jog

Tóth-Gyóllai Dániel: A magyarországi református lelkészképző intézmények állami elismerése

Jelen tanulmányban a Magyarországi Református Egyház lelkészképző intézményeit érintő rendszerváltás körüli felsőoktatás-politikai változásokról értekezem. Kutatási módszerem elsősorban jogi szövegek (törvények, rendeletek), s a jogalkotás mögött álló előkészítő munka (különösen is Országgyűlési naplók) megismerése és elemzése. Feltételezésem, hogy az utóbbi két évtized teológiai képzésére jelentős hatást gyakoroltak az állami elismerés következtében létrejött keretek. Célom bemutatni, hogy a református felsőoktatási intézmények működésének kereteire, s e keretek által közvetlenül a szervezési és oktatási tevékenységre miképpen hatott az 1993. évi felsőoktatási törvény által megvalósított állami elismerés. A tanulmányban ezért először az egyházi felsőoktatási intézmények rendszerváltáskori jogállásáról értekezem, majd általában véve az állami elismerés jelentőségét tárgyalom. Ezt követően részletesen elemzem az állami elismeréssel járó jogállásváltozás következményeit többek között az akkreditáció és a kreditrendszer bevezetése kapcsán, majd a szervezeti, oktatási és költségvetési autonómia területein.

Kulcsszavak: felsőoktatás-politika, rendszerváltás, református lelkészképzés, felsőoktatási törvény, Országgyűlés, akkreditáció, kreditrendszer

Történelemtudományi absztraktok

Bári Sándor: Magyar Asszonyok Nemzeti Szövetségének eszmerendszere

Jelen tanulmányomban a Magyar Asszonyok Nemzeti Szövetségének (MANSz.) havilapját, a Magyar Asszony 1921-1932 közötti lapszámait vettem vizsgálat alá. Az említett havilapra alapozva kívántam egyfelől megismerni a MANSz. nőképét. Másfelől a folyóiratban meglévő gondolatokat összehasonlítani az úgynevezett reformkonzervatívok, elsősorban Klebelsberg Kuno és Szekfű Gyula politikai gondolatrendszerével. A Magyar Asszony és azon keresztül a MANSz. nőképét vegyesnek mondhatjuk, hiszen a családi szerepvállalást illetően a hagyományos értékeket vallották. Ugyanakkor a társadalmi térről szólva nem határoztak meg elméleti korlátokat. Erre jó példát szolgáltat a felsőoktatás teljes megnyitásának szorgalmazása. A szociális és kulturális területeket kitűntetett figyelemmel illették, és ösztönözték a nők ezirányú fokozottabb mobilizációját. Ennek nemzetpolitikai jelentőséget tulajdonítottak. Ez pedig a szebbik nem hagyományos szerepének társadalomra történő kiterjesztésének tekinthető (társadalmi anyaság). E területeken végzett munkával a nemzet (lelki) egységét kívánták biztosítani. Ez pedig a reformkonzervatívok koncepciójával mutat párhuzamot. Munkásságukkal egyúttal az Egységes Párt konszolidációs politikájához is hozzá járultak.

Kulcsszavak: Magyar Asszonyok Nemzeti Szövetsége, reformkonzervatív, Magyar Asszony, Horthy-korszak, jótékonysági-szociális tevékenységek, kulturális munka

Berek Patrícia: Egy elfeledett magyar zseni – Mihály Dénes, a Telehor feltalálója

“Te, én most olyan halász vagyok, aki képeket halászom ki az éterből.” Ez a mondat egy péceli villa teraszán hangzott el 1912-ben, éppen idén 110 éve, egy akkor 18 éves fiú szájából. A nővérének mondta, Editnek, aki ekkor a világon elsőként tudhatta meg, hogy kisöccse, Mihály Dénes feltalálta a televízió ősét, a távolbalátó készüléket. Ez a készülék végül Telehor néven vonult be a technika történelmébe. Számos egyéb találmány is őrzi nevét. Mihály Dénes az egyik legtermékenyebb magyar feltalálóként vonult be a tudománytörténetbe. Páratlan kreativitása és emberszeretete akkor is megnyilvánult, amikor a hitleri Németországban zsidó munkatársait igyekezett menteni a borzalmaktól. A tanulmány magyar és német forrásokból mutatja be az elfeledett magyar zsenit.

Kulcsszavak: Mihály Dénes, Telehor, televízió őse, feltaláló

Horváth Angelus: Egy ellentmondásos viszony: Jászi Oszkár és a zsidóság

Jászi Oszkárnak a zsidósághoz fűződő viszonya, valamint zsidó identitástudata (vagy annak hiánya) hosszú ideje szakmai viták tárgyát képezi. A polgári radikális ideológus asszimilálódó zsidó családba született, s már egyetemi évei alatt a progresszív eszmék elkötelezett képviselőjévé vált. Zsidó származását mintegy zárójelbe téve támadta politikai ellenfeleit, igen gyakran az antiszemitákéhoz hasonló retorikát alkalmazva, ami miatt sokan öngyűlölő zsidónak minősítették. Jászi rendre visszautasította az ilyen kritikákat, ám élete utolsó szakaszában elismerte, kirohanásai valóban számos félreértésre adhattak okot. Tanulmányomban Jászi írásaira, leveleire támaszkodva megpróbálom bemutatni azokat a kritikus pontokat, melyeken keresztül jobban megérthetőek sajátos nézetei, különös tekintettel a „zsidókérdésben” elfoglalt álláspontjára. Véleményem szerint Jászi esetében megalapozott beszélhetünk önantiszemitizmusról, valamint arról is, hogy kíméletlen szóhasználata – főként az 1910-es években – hozzájárult a zsidóság elleni érzelmek felkorbácsolásában.

Kulcsszavak: zsidó identitás, antiszemitizmus, zsidó öngyűlölet, szocializmus, közösségi identitás

Kiss Anna: A vietnámi háború magyarországi reprezentációjához tartozó források és lehetséges elemzési módjaik

A vietnámi háború volt a hidegháború egyik legmeghatározóbb konfliktusa, mely a médiában is kiemelt szerepet töltött be. Ahhoz, hogy egy átfogó képet kaphassunk a vietnámi háború magyarországi reprezentációjáról meg kell vizsgálnunk a rendelkezésünkre álló forrásokat, ezek lehetnek levéltári források, újságcikkek, visszaemlékezések és számos egyéb dokumentum. A forrásokat az elemzés során megfelelő kritikai attitűddel kell vizsgálni, hiszen számos tényező befolyásolhatja a tartalmukat. Ehhez a folyamathoz hívhatjuk segítségül a diskurzuselemzést, amely alkalmazásával könnyedén rétegeire bonthatjuk a szövegeket. A sajtó vizsgálatakor többek között érdemes megfigyelni a cikkek elhelyezkedését, terjedelmét, azt, hogy milyen más hírek kapnak helyet az adott oldalon.

Kulcsszavak: vietnámi háború, hidegháború, sajtóelemzés, diskurzuselemzés, helikopterszerencsétlenség

Kiss-Mikó Nikoletta: Várjobbágyságtól a köznemességig: A Rádayak eredettörténete

A rádai Ráday család számos, neves tagja vált ismertté a magyarországi tudományos- és hitélet fontos szereplőjeként. A família saját történetét a 11. századig, a Nápoly melletti Caserta településig vezette vissza. Az innen származó Rátót, vagy Ratold nemzetség adta azokat a „mitikus ősöket”, akikre Ráday I. Gedeon is utalt családfakutatásának jegyzeteiben. Ezek, és a belőlük Kazinczy Ferenc által 1827-ben megszerkesztett Rádayak című munkája mutatta be először a nagy hatású nemesi családot. A Rádayak őstörténete legalább olyan ködös, mint korai birtoktörténetük részletei, annyi azonban bizonyos, hogy a 14–15. század során a család rádai birtokterületének több része is elzálogosításra került. A zálog összegét új birtokok vételére, s előnyös házasságok megkötésére használták fel. Így a 16. századtól e kisnemesi família egyre feljebb jutott a társadalmi ranglétrán. A 17. századtól kezdődően a Rádayak gazdasági létalapját biztosító birtokállomány főként a Nógrád, s Pest-Pilis-Solt vármegyei földterületekből tevődött össze. A fenti részletadatok megismerésének elengedhetetlen eszköze volt a levéltári kutatások okleveles emlékeinek, és a korábbi családfakutatások eredményeinek összevetése, különös tekintettel a megkötött házasságok vallási összetételére. Ennek vizsgálatából kitűnik, hogy a református Ráday család felekezeti alapon és stratégiai célok mentén egyaránt igyekezett sikeresen pozícionálni magát.

Kulcsszavak: Ráday, nemzetség, birtoktörténet, házasság, vallás

Kovács Balázs: A „szocreál” és a „szocmodern” határán A Fiastyúk utcai lakótelep építéstörténete

A második világháború után Magyarországon fokozatosan a sztálini modell vált uralkodóvá. Ez az átrendező az élet minden területén elérhető volt. A „munkásosztályt” képviselő Kommunista Párt kényszeriparosítással nagyszabású lakásépítésbe kezdett. Minderre a háború pusztítása miatt volt szükség. A lakótelep-építés Budapest újjáépítésének fő elemévé vált. A főváros XIII. kerületének ipari része alkalmas volt lakóházak építésére. Így került kialakításra a Fiastyúk utca és a Rákos patak által határolt terület „szocreál” stílusban. A világpolitika hatására a „szocialista” stílus 1953-tól fokozatosan visszaszorult, és a költséghatékonyabb „szocmodern” vette át a helyét a tervezésben. A Fiastyúk utcai lakótelep esetében milyen stíluskülönbségek figyelhetőek meg, illetve miképpen változtatatott a terveken a „történelem”? Módszertanilag a levéltári tervforrásokat leíró eszközzel vettem elemzés alá. Nem volt célom a diktatórikus hatalom építészetre ráerőszakolt stílusainak esztétikai bírálata. A fogalmakat bemutatásszerűen jelenítettem meg, felmutatva a róluk szóló szakmai-közéleti ellentéteket is. Végkövetkeztetésem, hogy a lakótelep kétféle stílusban épült meg, ám ennek ellenére is egység a városképi jellege. A tanulmány – a célját tekintve – a történettudomány mellett épület- és építéstörténeti kontextusban értelmezhető.

Kulcsszavak: „szocreál”, „szocmodern”, Fiastyúk utcai , építéstörténet, jelentésparadigma

Semsey Enikő: Németország politika- és művelődéstörténetéről az 1951-ben Kelet-Berlinben felállított Sztálin-szobor kapcsán

A tanulmányom célja Németország világháború utáni politika- és művelődéstörténetének rövid bemutatása. A főbb elemeiben megvilágított tartalmi háttér bemutatása után térek rá az 1951-ben Kelet-Berlinben felállított Sztálin-szobor sorsára, amelyen keresztül azt a politikai ideológiát igyekeztem bemutatni, amely hűen tükrözte milyen jelentőséggel bírt szovjet-rendszer a két részre szakadt Németország keleti oldalán. Munkám során a Lukas Verlag ” Der Rote Gott- Stalin und die Deutschen” című kötetét használtam, valamint korabeli sajtóforrásokkal dolgoztam. Kutatásomban arra a következtetésre jutottam, hogy a szobor vizuális megfogalmazásként, a mindennapi élet állandó elemeként, fontos– és vitatott–  részévé válhatott az 1949-1991 közötti időszakban a német nemzeti identitásnak.

Kulcsszavak: Németország 1945 utáni történelme, Sztálin szobor Kelet-Berlinben, német nemzeti identitás, Szocialista realizmus

Timári Krisztián Attila: A Habsburg Birodalom keleti politikai rendszere és útja az utolsó törökellenes háborúba

A keleti politika II. József császár idejében erősen felértékelődött, mivel a nyugati területszerzés bonyolult diplomáciai és katonai küzdelmek árán sem hozott eredményt. Nagy Katalin és birodalma is hasonlóan hódító szándékot mutatott, így a kapcsolatfelvétel után a közös cél az Oszmán Birodalom legyőzése volt. Az 1780-as évtizedben formálódó szövetségek és események eleinte késleltették a háború kirobbanását, de közös találkozók a két uralkodó között előrevetítettek egy olyan háborút, amire egyik birodalom sem készülhetett fel teljesen. A császár és a cárnő, illetve a szűk körükbe tartozó államférfiak leveleinek bevonásával könnyebben lehet azonosítani a két fél óvatosságát a másik felé, illetve a körvonalazódni látszó hódítások szétosztását. Az események sodrásában és számos kudarc után a keleti politika végül súlyos döntésre kényszerítette a Habsburg Birodalmat. A háború végül elkerülhetetlenné vált és megtörte a viszonylagos békét a keleti területeken.

Kulcsszavak: Diplomácia, Háború, Habsburg Birodalom

Tolnai Gyula: Adalékok Nagykőrös történetéhez 1918-1919 között

A tanulmány megírásával célom az volt, hogy az épségben megmaradt levéltári források és a vonatkozó szakirodalom segítségével olyan képet alkossak Nagykőrös 1918 és 1919 közötti történetéről, melyből az alábbi témák kikristályosodnak ki előttünk. Mégpedig: hogyan küzd egy mezőváros a túlélésért az I. világháború által okozott társadalmi és gazdasági regressziót követően. Hogyan változik meg a helyzet, amikor a Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság rendszere a városban is megjelenik, teljesen felborítva az addigi társadalmi és gazdasági status quot, melyen az ezt követő román megszállás nemhogy javít, hanem csak tovább ront. Legvégül pedig, hogy hogyan képes ezek után a város elindulni a konszolidáció útján a Nemzeti Hadsereg egységeinek bevonulását követően.

Kulcsszavak: Helytörténet, társadalomtörténet, gazdaságtörténet, Nagykőrös, nagy háború, Őszirózsás forradalom, Tanácsköztársaság, Román megszállás, Nemzeti Hadsereg, Horthy

KRE-DIt 2022/1 Abstracts/Resümees

Abstracts in theological studies

Péter Balogh: The Role of the Unity of Christians in Mission – The Example of Cooperation of the Apostle Paul and his Partners

The study examines the role of unity in the context of missiology. We can state that the unity of Christians supports the purpose of mission in itself, because experiencing love makes belonging to a community appealing. Besides, cooperation and the harmonized unity of spiritual gifts are necessary in the effectiveness of active involvement in mission. Based on literature on missiology we examine the role of relationships along the internal and external directions. We briefly summarize the teaching of the Apostle Paul concerning relationships which is demonstrated in his writings as well as his life’s example. His personal relationships, his co-workers and his contacts within the church stand as a model to us, helping the leaders to support cooperation, and also helping the members of the church to recognize and fulfil their role as partners in the harmonized unity of the body.

Keywords: mission, unity, relationship, the Apostle Paul

Gyopárka Jakabné Köves: Methodology of Covenant Theology

Covenant theology struggled from the beginning of the 16th century to the present day with the tension of unity and plurality in methodological approaches. From the Reformation federal theology strictly insisted on explanations based on exegetics of Scripture. However, the distinction between two or three main covenants divides covenant theology in two different approaches. This paper shows how Protestant federal theology explain the covenant of works and, the pactum salutis alongside the covenant of grace, and the research exposes  the criticisms that regards God’s covenant with man as alone the covenant of grace. At the diachronic examination, the question arises concerning the relationship of covenant theology to the Ramist method. In the paper I argue that there is a close relationship between them, although the theological idea of two separate covenants is not an effect of Ramism.

Keywords: Covenant theology, methodology, covenant of works, covenant of grace, pactum salutis, Ramism

Zsolt Pétery-Schmidt: What Makes Theology Theological? The Way of Colin Gunton and John Webster into the Sphere of Dogmatics

The study seeks to identify the distinctive features of the discipline of theology. This is done with the help of the works of Colin E. Gunton (1941-2003) and John B. Webster (1955-2016) written in the field of dogmatica prolegomena. The authors are not well known in the Hungarian theological literature, despite the fact that they were internationally important and recognized theologians. Following Gunton’s seminal work (The One, the Three and the Many) the study takes into account the modern culture as the context for a contemporary theology. The tautology borrowed from Webster (Theological theology) helps to highlight the enduring value of theology in the context of modernity. The unpacking of the tautology for the protestant systematic theology is possible if one understands dogmatics as the holy discipline. In order to do this, it is important to be aware of the following paradox: theology cannot accept the anthropological foundations of the academic world, but it cannot be excluded from this world without undermining one of the main principles of academic research: diversity of opinion. The conclusion of the paper is: “What makes theology theological? By reflecting with responsibility the essence of God in the world through sanctified human reason. In this, theology is institutionally manifested as church in every sphere of life.”

Keywords: Webster, Gunton, theological theology, modernity, dogmatica prolegomena, holy

Zoltánné Stifler: „Semper Reformanda” within the Framework of the Digital Age in German and Hungarian Speaking Areas

„Semper reformanda”- The Church is always in need of renewal. This idea is not unknown to the 21st century church eighter. The digitalization has opened up new ways to preach the gospel. These wasy have to be studied in depth and they have to have theological fundation. Perhaps we can boldly state that a new theological discipline is being born.  This study has examined with special attention the relations of the media with the Church in Swiss, German and Hungarian areas. After summing up the inner- and outherstate results our focus was on the ifficiancy and usebility of massmedia and of it’s communicational aspekts. I addressed the communicational problems brought about by the postmodern age in order to get a more nuanced picture of the impact of media on society.

Keywords: semper reformanda, digital, communication, reformation, digital

Abstracts of legal science studies

Brigitta Adler: Protocol and human rights: thoughts on the customs determining the practice of maternity care

The aim of this paper is to present – through a critical analysis – the functioning and characteristics of the obstetric system in Hungary through some of the basic practices of obstetric care that have been established and consolidated in Hungary, and through this, draw attention to its harmful practices.

This paper specifically addresses, among other things, the issue of consent and self-determination; it touches upon some routine practices, such as the prohibition of free movement during childbirth, the use of unindicated caesarean section, or paternalism.

Consistent with the findings of evidence-based medicine, it can be stated that the routine, unlawful practices described in this paper cannot be justified from a medical, legal or ethical perspective. The paper concludes that there is a need for a review of policies, protocols and practices that determine the quality of care and for the development of a nationally consistent set of procedures.

Keywords: maternity, legal custom in obsteric and midwifery care, patient rights, perinatal infringements, dignity in childbirth

Róbert Holló: American Indian Self-Determination: Brief History and The Political Economy of a Policy that Works

No right is said to be more sacred to any nation, to any people, than the right for freely determine its cultural, economic, social and – of course – political future without any other interference coming from outside. The mightiest realization of this right shows itself when nations can freely govern themselves. When this occurs, it is called the right Self-Determination. And when it is practiced it is named Self-Governance.

From Chief Justice Marshall’s Indian law trilogy and many of his other landmark decisions, through other legislations, the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 (ISDEAA) serves as a cornerstone of the modern federal Indian policy in the USA. In 1988, amendments to the ISDEAA created broadened the tribal self-governance leading the native American nations towards to their once-was-lived freedom for self-determination derived from their inherent tribal sovereignty. By providing a statutory basis for the broader movement of tribal self-governance, the tribal legislation, and recognizing its parliamentary-like special body formations advanced the proposition that Indian nations can provide better governmental and legislative services to their own members than can distant federal bureaucracies. Expanded and refined in subsequent legislation in 1994 and 2000, the Self-Governance Policy has proven so successful that today over 50% of all federal Indian nations assembled some kind of body for their own legislation and chose their affairs are carried out by themselves rather than federal agencies.

This article reviews the history of the modern U.S. federal Indian policy as well as casts light to basic forms and elements self-governance and its forms of bodies of tribal legislation of native American nations, points out the biggest challenges to the continued growth of legislation, and raises ideas to possible directions that could take in the coming years.

Keywords: USA, native American nations, self-determination, self-governance, legislation of native American nations

Edina Lajos: Protecting human rights or remedying maladministration?

The roots of the institution can be traced back to Sweden in the early 1700s.The ombudsman is known internationally by a variety of names, such as people’s advocate, people’s lawyer, people’s rights defender, mediator, etc… The ombudsman is classically an official charged with countering maladministration and injustice. It is also internationally recognised as a defender of human rights.

 In our view, not only is there no contradiction between these two approaches, but the concepts are mutually presuppositional. The ombudsmen’s tool is recommendation, i.e. they apply “soft law”, which cannot be enforced. After the change of regime in Hungary, the Parliamentary Commissioner for Citizens’ Rights fulfilled the general ombudsman function, and there were two separate ombudsmen. The new system made the structure single-headed. The Commissioner for Fundamental Rights is the general ombudsman, who has two deputies. One is responsible for the rights of future generations and the other for nationality rights. The Ombudsman is elected by Parliament from among lawyers of outstanding academic or professional standing with at least ten years’ experience, by a majority of at least two-thirds of all Members, who are at least thirty-five years of age and have considerable experience in the conduct, supervision or academic theory of proceedings concerning fundamental rights. The Head of State shall have the right of nomination. The Ombudsman may be called upon to hear cases of maladministration. The Ombudsman may also inspect bodies providing public services, not just the administration. The Commissioner for Fundamental Rights may not investigate the activities of the Parliament, the President of the Republic, the Constitutional Court, the State Audit Office, the Court of Audit, or the prosecution service, with the exception of the investigative bodies of the Public Prosecutor’s Office. The Ombudsman may initiate action by the prosecutor, file a criminal complaint and request the Constitutional Court to review the norms after the event.

Keywords: commissioner for fundamental rights, protection of fundamental rights, maladministration, ombudsman’s investigation

Péter Molnár: Terminology changes in the field of eGovernment

The phenomena related to eGovernment are constantly evolving as technology develops. In the era of digitalisation, the understanding of eGovernment concepts is a source of many difficulties for practitioners and researchers alike. In this paper (based on the Hungarian and international professional literature), I will attempt to explore the meanings behind some of the commonly used terms in this field by interpreting the concepts of eGovernment, eGovernance and eAdministration, and the difference between the terms „electronic” and „digital” government.

Keywords: public administration, eGovernment, digitalization, digital government, eAdministration

Dóra Ripszám: Briefly about the State of danger, especially with regard to its topicality

The special legal order can in general be introduced in exceptional situations of emergency or crisis which cannot be effectively managed within the framework of the normal legal order, through existing legislation or procedures.

The State of danger can also be considered special within the special legal order, since it is the only element that is not aimed at the armed protection of the state.

In part, the State of danger declared in connection with the coronavirus pandemic led to the 9th amendment of the Fundamental Law of Hungary, according to which the regulation of the state of danger will be as follows from 1 July 2023: In the event of a serious event endangering the safety of life and property, in particular an elementary calamity or industrial accident, and in order to avert the consequences of these, the Government may declare a state of danger in order to avert the consequences of these disasters.

Keywords: special legal order, State of danger, coronavirus, pandemic

Imre Szilárd Szabó: Questions of labour law regarding parliamentary elections

The date of the parliamentary elections is not considered as a public holiday, so the different labour law rules giverning it are not taken into account from a labour law point of view. In practice, this often results in a significant challenge as to how employees working outside the normal working hours can exercise their constitutional voting right. In this paper, I will briefly attempt to resolve this problem, also describing the labour law rules applicable to members of the ballot-counting committee,  who generally work on a voluntary basis, indicating the regulatory gap where legislative intervention may be necessary.

Keywords: labour law, elections, voting, vote counter, right to vote

Dániel Tóth-Gyóllai: State recognition of reformed theological colleges in Hungary

The present study explores the changes of higher education politics affecting the institutions of theological education in the Hungarian Reformed Church during the period of the fall of communism in Hungary. My research method rests primarily on the study and analysis of legal texts and preparatory works of legislation, especially those concerning theological higher education. I assume that the “state recognition” of reformed colleges made a great impact on tuitional as well as organizational aspects of theological education in the past two decades. My goal is to present how and to what extent the 1993 state recognition influence the organizational and educational activity of reformed theological universities and colleges. Therefore, I will first concentrate on the legal status of theological institutions in the historic era of transition of 1989 in Hungary, followed by a discussion of the importance of state recognition in general. I will then analyze the consequences of the alteration of legal terms resulting from state recognition and the introduction of the credit system and how these affected organizational, educational and budgetary autonomy.

Keywords: state recognition, Hungary, higher education policy, transition, end of Communism, reformed theological colleges, higher education act, Parliament, accreditation, credit system

Abstracts in historical studies/Geschichtswissenschaftliche Resümees

Sándor Bári: Ideology of National Association of Hungarian Women

In this study I researched the monthly paper of the National Association of Hungarian Women (MANSz.) named “Magyar Asszony” focusing on its releases between 1921-1932. On one hand I aimed to investigate the general female image of MANsz. On the other hand I wanted to compare the ideas presented in the paper with the ideology of the so called reform conservatives such as Klebelsberg Kuno and Gyula Szekfű. The female image portrayed in Magyar asszony was mixed, when it came to women’s role in the family it reached back to traditional values. At the same time when it came to women’s role in society they wanted to define no limitations. A good example of this is supporting the idea of completely opening higher education to women. They paid special attention to social and cultural fields, driving the increased mobilization of women towards these areas. They acknowledged this idea as a national political issue. This can be viewed as the expansion of the traditional female role to wider society (social motherhood). With this they aimed to to ensure national spiritual unity. This idea was similar to reform conservative concepts. Their work also contributed to the consolidation policy of the Unified Party.

Keywords: National Association of Hungarian Women, reform conservative, Magyar Asszony, Horthy-era, charitable-social activities, cultural work

Patrícia Berek: Ein Vergessenes Ungarisches Genie Dénes Mihály, Erfinder des Telehor

„Hey, ich bin jetzt ein Fischer, der Bilder aus dem Äther fischt!” Dieser Satz wurde 1912, genau vor 110 Jahren, auf der Terrasse einer Villa in Pécel von einem damals 18-jährigen Jungen geäußert. Er sagte es zu seiner Schwester Edit, die als erste Person auf der Welt erfuhr, dass sein jüngerer Bruder Dénes Mihály gerade den Vorläufer des Fernsehens, den Fernsehapparat, erfunden hatte. Dieses Gerät sollte schließlich als Telehor in die Geschichte der Technik eingehen. Das war nicht seine einzige Innovation. Auch viele andere Erfindungen tragen seinen Namen. Dénes Mihály ist einer der produktivsten ungarischen Erfinder in der Geschichte der Wissenschaft. Seine beispiellose Kreativität und Philanthropie zeigten sich auch, als er versuchte, seine jüdischen Kollegen vor den Schrecken in Hitlerdeutschland zu retten. Diese Studie stellt anhand ungarischer und deutscher Quellen das vergessene ungarische Genie vor.

Schlagwörter: Dénes Mihály, Telehor, Fernsehapparat, Erfinder

Angelus Horváth: A controversial affair: Oszkár Jászi and the Jewish community

Oszkár Jászi’s relationship to the Jewish community and his Jewish identity (or lack thereof) have long been the subject of professional debate. Jászi was born into a socially integrated Jewish family and became a committed advocate of progressive ideas during his university years. Forgetting his Jewish origins, he attacked his political opponents, often using rhetoric similar to that of anti-Semites, which led many to label him an anti-Semite or a self-hating Jew. Jászi always rejected such criticism, but in the latter part of his life he admitted that his attacks may indeed have given rise to many misunderstandings. In my study, I will draw on Jászi’s writings and letters to try to present the critical points through which his views, especially his position on the ʿJewish questionʾ, can be better understood. In my opinion, in Jászi’s case, we can rightly speak of self-antisemitism, and also of the fact that his harsh use of words, especially in the 1910s, contributed to the intensification of anti-Jewish sentiment.

Keywords: Jewish identity, antisemitism, Jewish self-hatred, socialism,Ni community identity

Anna Kiss: The possible analysis methods of the representation of the Vietnam War in hungarian point of view

Vietnam War was one of the most determinative conflict through the period of Cold War and it had a key role in the media broadcastings. To get a comprehensive overview about the representation of Vietnam War’s hungarian point of view we have to analyse the available sources like archive articles, memories and other documents. Through the method of the analysis we have to have a critical attitude because there are several factors which affects on the content of the documents. In this case we can use the Critical Discourse Analyse method with which we can disassemble the texts to layers. Through the analysis of the press we can observe the location and the extent of the articles, and the nearby articles on the specified page.

Keywords: Vietnam War, Cold War, press analysis, Critical Discourse Analysis, helicopter disaster

Nikoletta Kiss-Mikó: From castle serfs to nobility: The origins of the Ráday family

The Ráday family had several of its members known as players in the evolution of Hungarian clerical and scientific life. According to the family tradition, they traced back their roots to the eleventh century, and to the city of Caserta near Naples. Members of the Ratold (or Rátót) kindred were the “mythical ancestors” mentioned by Gedeon I Ráday, in his genealogical research. The present paper discusses first the history of the impactful noble family, in comparison with the work entitled “A Rádayak” by Ferenc Kazinczy and published in 1827. Origins of the Rádays are just as foggy as their early estate history itself. However, it could be stated that during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries parts of their landed estates became hypothecated. The sums from these manoeuvres were used for acquiring more estates, and to support strategically important marriages. Thus, from being part of lower nobility the Ráday family rose step by step to gain more and more power. From the seventeenth century, the landed estates owned by the family members were mostly situated in Nógrád, and Pest-Pilis-Solt Counties. Details stated above were discovered by comparing archival data with the results of previous genealogy research, especially with regard to the religious background of the marriages mentioned above. By examining these marriages, it is clear that the Ráday family, as adherent of the Reformed Church, has positioned itself both religiously and strategically successfully.

Keywords: Ráday, genus, estate history, marriage, religious

Balázs Kovács: On the border of “socreal” and “socmodern” The construction history of the housing estate on Fiastyúk Street

After the Second World War, the Stalinist model gradually became dominant in Hungary. This rearranger was available in all areas of life. The Communist Party, representing the ‘working class’, began large-scale housing construction with forced industrialization. All this was necessary because of the destruction of the war. Housing estate construction has become a major element in the reconstruction of Budapest. The industrial part of the thirteenth district of the capital was suitable for the construction of residential houses. This is how the area bounded by Fiastyúk Street and the Rákos stream was designed in a “socreal” style. As a result of world politics, the “socialist” style gradually declined from 1953, and the more cost-effective “socmodern” took its place in design. In the case of the housing estate on Fiastyúk Street, what style differences can be observed, and how has “history” changed the plans? Methodologically, I analyzed it with a tool describing archival design sources. It was not my intention to critique the aesthetic styles of dictatorial power imposed on architecture. I presented the concepts in a presentation way, also showing the professional-public contradictions about them. My conclusion is that the housing estate was built in two styles, yet its urban character is unity. In addition to historical science, the study can be interpreted in the context of building and construction history.

Keywords: socialist realism, „socmodern”, Fiastyúk street warren, construction history, meaning paradigm

Enikő Semsey: About Germany’s political- and cultural history connecting to the Stalin-statue set up in East-Berlin, 1951

The goal of my study is to briefly present the political and cultural history of Germany after the second World War. After  highlighting the main elements of its background , I study the fate of the Stalin statue built in East Berlin in 1951, through which I tried to present the political ideology that faithfully reflected the significance of the Soviet system on the eastern part of the divided Germany. During my work I used Lukas Verlag’s book Der Rote Gott – Stalin and „die Deutschen” titled volume and worked with contemporary press sources. In my research, I came to the conclusion that the sculpture, as a visual formulation, as a permanent element of everyday life, may have become an important – and controversial – part of German national identity between 1949 and 1991.

Keywords: German history after 1945, Stalin-statue in East-Berlin, german national identity, social realism

Krisztián Attila Timári: The political system of the Habsburg Empire in the East and the road to the last Turkish war

The policy towards the East was highly valorized under Emperor Joseph II, as the conquest of territory in the West did not bring results even at the cost of complicated diplomatic and military struggles. Catherine the Great and her empire showed a similar desire for conquest, so the common goal after contact was the defeat of the Ottoman Empire. The alliances and events that took shape in the 1780s initially delayed the outbreak of war, but joint meetings between the two rulers foreshadowed a war for which neither empire could be fully prepared. The inclusion of the letters makes it easier to identify the wariness of each side towards the other and the distribution of conquests that seemed to be in the offing. In the drift of events and after a series of setbacks, the politics of the East finally forced the Habsburg Empire to make a serious decision. War finally became inevitable and broke the relative peace in the eastern territories.

Keywords: Policy, War, Turks, Habsburg Empire

Gyula Tolnai: Contributions to the history of Nagykőrös between 1918-1919

The aim of the following study is to process a slice of the local, economic, and military history of Nagykőrös between 1918 and 1920, those that have barely been presented before. It strives to paint a picture about the history of Nagykőrös between 1918 and 1920 with the help of the rich archival material that remains as well as knowledge on the literature of the topic. The following points will take shape as the essay continues to unfold. Firstly, how a market town struggles to survive social and economic regressions caused by the World War I. Secondly, how will the situation change when the institutional system of the Hungarian Soviet Republic enters the city completely overturning the current social and economic status quo, which the subsequent Romanian occupation not improves, but only worsens. Finally, how can the city then embark on a path of consolidation following the entry of National Army units.

Keywords: Local history, social history, economic history, Nagykőrös, The Great War, Hungarian Soviet Republic, Romanian occupation, National Army, Horthy

KRE-DIt 2021/2 abstracts

Abstracts in theological studies

Kata Pető-Veres: Changes in baptism in the light of the responses to the 1968 liturgical survey of the Reformed Church in Hungary

The movement for the renewal of the liturgy could not escape the attention of the Reformed Church in Hungary. The church leadership felt that the time had come for a new Liturgical Book to be drawn up and the current Ravasz Agenda to be replaced, one of the, perhaps zero, steps in this process being the national liturgical questionnaire sent out before Easter 1968. The questionnaire asked about the usability of the current so-called Ravasz─ liturgy and gave the clergy the space to express their opinions and make their own suggestions. The topic of the questions included, among others, homily services, sacrament services, confirmation or funerals. In my study, I will look at the responses to baptism, which give an insight into the church life in the period of the socialist dictatorship, its views on worship and sacrament, and also serve as a comparison for today’s pastors, who may face different problems, but individualism and diversity are still a problem.

Keywords: 20. century, liturgy, baptism, individualisation, survey

Abstracts of legal science studies

Zsolt Gonda: The energy efficiency system (EES)

The aim of the study is to present the most important rules of the energy efficiency system, the EES, during which the author intends to present the implementation of the European Union legal acts for the purpose of legal harmonization into Hungarian law.

Keywords: Energy law, law of european union, energy efficiency system

Zsolt Gonda: Key legal issues related to self-driving cars

The proliferation of self-driving cars is a complex industrial, technological, technical and regulatory issue that will require a long transition period when self-driving and non-self-driving cars will share the roads. The rapid pace of technological development will have a significant impact on the transport sector, both in robotics and artificial intelligence, and self-driving vehicles will greatly change our daily lives, the future of international road transport, improve road safety, increase mobility and reduce environmental impact. negative effects.

Keywords: Legal issues of self-driving cars, legal issues of artificial intelligence

Péter Molnár: Comparison of the new Chinese Personal Data Protection Law (PIPL) with GDPR and CCPA

In this paper we complie the new Personal Data Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China with the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation and the Californian CCPA. After reviewing the evolution of data protection legislation worldwide, we identify commonalities and key differences, helping the work of both researchers and practitioners.

Keywords: PIPL, Chinese data protection law, GDPR, CCPA, privacy

Ágnes Orbánné Szél Napsugár: The impact of Article 12 of the New York Convention on the development of child-centered justice

Children come into contact with the justice system in many different occasions and ways. The UNCRC Article 12 provides that children have the right to have opinion and for these opinions to be heard and taken seriously. The Council of Europe created the guidelines  of child -friendly justice.  Article 12 is  the most important element of child -friendly justice. These two major component joins in the Hungarian Civil Procedure Code (HCPC). This paper sets two aims: briefly introduces the Art 12 of UNCRC and the meaning of child -friendly justice, secondly outlines the corresponding rules in the Hungarian Code of Civil Procedure.

Keywords: UNCRC, Art 12, child-friendly justice, rigth to be heard, HCPC

Ágnes Orbánné Szél Napsugár: The possibility of granting the right to information in matrimonial proceedings involving minors – a spectacular individual gesture or effective legal protection?

In recent decades, the procedural situation of children in civil proceedings, especially in family law, has changed, meanwhile the tokenistic concept of children situation and rights declined.  However, their representation during the proceedings and their right to information is still in need of improvement. A unique, highly publicised example of the child’s right to information was a letter from a British judge, who explained the judgment to a minor, has not become a standard practice. In order to provide the right to information and, in parallel, the representation of minors, I would like present briefly the example of the Spanish civil prosecutor: the fiscal, who could replace the court appointed guardian, which position is regulated in the current Hungarian Civil Procedure Code.

Keywords: Child-centred justice, judge’s letter, right to information, fiscal, court appointed guardian, Hungarian Civil Procedure Code

Adrienn Ronga: The Brexit’s public law and economic law impacts for the United Kingdom

The study focuses primarily on the current public law situation in the United Kingdom after Brexit, as well as its economic and future trends and the process of transformation of trade. In this context, I will describe the changes in the areas of the various industries in the UK economy, highlighting the emerging effects of trade, finance and the labor market, in the light of the emergence of Brexit. Overall, the aim of the study was to present and interpret certain economically relevant aspects of the implementation of the Brexit complex from a public law and economic point of view.

Keywords: European Union law, Brexit, public law, commercial law, financial law, labour law

Abstracts in historical studies

Kata Demeter: The „one-child system” in János Kodolányi’s publications

János Kodolányi was a prominent figure of the 20th century Hungarian literature and the „populist” writers movement. Starting from the 1920s János Kodolányi, who lived in the Ormánság, was interested in southern Baranya’s peasant life and the mentality of the „one-child system”, at that time, his writing talent manifested in his literary works. Soon after, he began to write publications, where he explored the subject in a manner typical of „populist” writers. His writings included strong critique of the middle class, critique of capitalism and the threat of German conquest. A main characteristic of his thinking was that he didn’t consider the custom of southern Baranya’s folk as a peculiarity of the region, rather as a problem that would seal the fate of the entire Hungarian nation. In my work I’m going to systematize Kodolányi’s image of the „one-child system”, based on the above mentioned aspects and his publicated works.

Keywords: Horthy era, hungarian peasantry, „one-child system”, „populist” writers movement, János Kodolányi

Kristóf Keller-Deák: The Váh Valley in the centre of military intelligence

In the period between the two world wars, the task of the Hungarian military attachés was to manage and organize the intelligence in the given country. Their task was to obtain information, which meant any information about the host country’s army or any activities related to the army. This was also the case in Czechoslovakia, which was of paramount importance in the era. As a result, the attachés shared any news and information of a military nature in their reports. Such a series of reports is about when in 1933 the then military attaché, lieutenant colonel Géza Lakatos, noticed the construction work in the Váh Valley, which he attributed to military purposes, so he reported the process of constructions in the region in several intelligence reports.

Keywords: Géza Lakatos, military attaché, Czechoslovakia, intelligence, reports, Váh Valley, industry

Krisztina Dóra Fodor: Syneros martyr, the ‘monachus’ in the light of the passions and martyrologies

This study analyzes the monastic tradition of Syneros martyr, who was one of the Pannonian martyrs under the Diocletianic persecution. The early researchers were embarrassed by the assumption of using the monachus word in the early 300’s years, since the first using of this word happened in the second half of the 4th Century in this area of the Roman Empire. The two survived passions about Syneros martyr do not help us to give the answer, because one of them conains the word monachus, but the other does not. In this study we are taking all the sources starting with the first insciptions in the cemetery of Sirmium, and after we continue with the copies of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum, the historical martyrologies and finally the tradition of the manuscripts of the passions. It can be determined from the sources that the word monachus could be a subsequent expansion. But this expansion was made by not the author / copier of the passion but the authors of the historical martyrologies, an anonymus author from Lyon in the early 9th Century. He created the monastic tradition of Syneros, which tradition returns in the passion of the 14th Century. This study tries to prove (strongly insisting on the sources), that Syneros could not be a monastic saint.

Keywords: Pannonia, Sirmium, Christian persecution, Syneros, martyr, monachus, monastic, martyrology

István Pap: The Financing role of the Central Commercial and Industtial Bank Limited Liabilizy Company in Budapest tenement houses and housing constructions (1908-1911)

In the first decade of the last century, masses came to Budapest from the countryside in order to find a job, although the housing capacity of the capital did not increase with it. Small-scales employees and workers faced the worst situation. Seeing this problem,various constraction contractors were provided loans by the Central Commercial and Industrial Bank for the building of rental houses in various parts of Budapest. These measures helped to reduce the housing shortage in the capital. This paper is to analyze these documents of the Central Commercial and Industrial Bank.

Keywords: Central Commercial and Industrial Bank, official colonies, István Bárczy, Budapest urban development plans

István Pap: Castiglioni Camillo and the first three businesses year of the Hungaraian-Italian Bank

Camillo Castiglioni, a financial genius, played a prominent role in 1920 in the establishment of the Hungarian-Italian Bank. Int he time between 1920 and 1923 the bank developed rapidly. He held shares in great amounts in various industrial and commercial companies. After the peacemaking in 1920 Hungary played a significant role in retail and corporate lending, also promoting the country’s economic development. The bank was part of the Eastern European expansion of Banca Commerciale Italiana. This paper focuses on the work of Cammillo Castiglioni in this time-periode at the directorate of Hungarian-Italian Bank.

Keywords: Camillo Castiglioni, Hungarian-Italian Bank, corporate shares, bank loans

Dániel Rátvay-Nagy: The numbers and proportions of students in science specialized schools based on native language and religion in four Hungarian cities between 1867-1914

In the second half of the 19th century a new secondary school type came to be in Hungary, which specialized in science. This new school type was based on Austrian-Prussian design, were not really popular according to the current stance of historiography. During the dualism only 15% of Hungarian students studied in real schools, while in Austria 30% of students went to real schools. The examined real schools actually show growth in this period, working on full capacity more than once over the years. The students of these real schools were mostly native speakers of hungarian. There may be a connection between the orders of the Ministry of Education and Religion and the changes in the student headcount. A high percentege of the students attending these schools were jews

Keywords: Dualism, secondary schools, education, ethnicity, religion, jews

Réka Zsidai: Education of László Festetics (1785– 1846) and today’s education system

At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, one of the defining figures of the Hungarian Enlightenment was Count György Festetics. Due to his rank and social status, the Count of Keszthely paid close attention to the upbringing of his son, Count László, in line with the expectations of the period.

György Festetics signed József Péteri Takáts with European culture in 1790 and István Kultsár as educator with his son in 1799. Count László’s upbringing was primarily determined by the principles of J. J. Rousseau and John Locke. These laws governing modern teaching, such as the National Core Curriculum and the Pedagogical Programme, have clear roots. The sources confirm that at the heart of László’s upbringing was the preparation for life in the office and court, which was the service of the common good.

In my study, I present the basic principles of contemporary education, such as moral, intellectual and physical education in the light of the National Core Curriculum in force and teacher competence.

Keywords: László Festetics, enlightenment, education, pedagogy, John Locke, J. J. Rousseau, educator, commonwealth, National Core Curriculum, Pedagogical Programme, teacher competence, instructions