KRE-DIt 2021/2 abstracts

Abstracts in theological studies

Kata Pető-Veres: Changes in baptism in the light of the responses to the 1968 liturgical survey of the Reformed Church in Hungary

The movement for the renewal of the liturgy could not escape the attention of the Reformed Church in Hungary. The church leadership felt that the time had come for a new Liturgical Book to be drawn up and the current Ravasz Agenda to be replaced, one of the, perhaps zero, steps in this process being the national liturgical questionnaire sent out before Easter 1968. The questionnaire asked about the usability of the current so-called Ravasz─ liturgy and gave the clergy the space to express their opinions and make their own suggestions. The topic of the questions included, among others, homily services, sacrament services, confirmation or funerals. In my study, I will look at the responses to baptism, which give an insight into the church life in the period of the socialist dictatorship, its views on worship and sacrament, and also serve as a comparison for today’s pastors, who may face different problems, but individualism and diversity are still a problem.

Keywords: 20. century, liturgy, baptism, individualisation, survey

Abstracts of legal science studies

Zsolt Gonda: The energy efficiency system (EES)

The aim of the study is to present the most important rules of the energy efficiency system, the EES, during which the author intends to present the implementation of the European Union legal acts for the purpose of legal harmonization into Hungarian law.

Keywords: Energy law, law of european union, energy efficiency system

Zsolt Gonda: Key legal issues related to self-driving cars

The proliferation of self-driving cars is a complex industrial, technological, technical and regulatory issue that will require a long transition period when self-driving and non-self-driving cars will share the roads. The rapid pace of technological development will have a significant impact on the transport sector, both in robotics and artificial intelligence, and self-driving vehicles will greatly change our daily lives, the future of international road transport, improve road safety, increase mobility and reduce environmental impact. negative effects.

Keywords: Legal issues of self-driving cars, legal issues of artificial intelligence

Péter Molnár: Comparison of the new Chinese Personal Data Protection Law (PIPL) with GDPR and CCPA

In this paper we complie the new Personal Data Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China with the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation and the Californian CCPA. After reviewing the evolution of data protection legislation worldwide, we identify commonalities and key differences, helping the work of both researchers and practitioners.

Keywords: PIPL, Chinese data protection law, GDPR, CCPA, privacy

Ágnes Orbánné Szél Napsugár: The impact of Article 12 of the New York Convention on the development of child-centered justice

Children come into contact with the justice system in many different occasions and ways. The UNCRC Article 12 provides that children have the right to have opinion and for these opinions to be heard and taken seriously. The Council of Europe created the guidelines  of child -friendly justice.  Article 12 is  the most important element of child -friendly justice. These two major component joins in the Hungarian Civil Procedure Code (HCPC). This paper sets two aims: briefly introduces the Art 12 of UNCRC and the meaning of child -friendly justice, secondly outlines the corresponding rules in the Hungarian Code of Civil Procedure.

Keywords: UNCRC, Art 12, child-friendly justice, rigth to be heard, HCPC

Ágnes Orbánné Szél Napsugár: The possibility of granting the right to information in matrimonial proceedings involving minors – a spectacular individual gesture or effective legal protection?

In recent decades, the procedural situation of children in civil proceedings, especially in family law, has changed, meanwhile the tokenistic concept of children situation and rights declined.  However, their representation during the proceedings and their right to information is still in need of improvement. A unique, highly publicised example of the child’s right to information was a letter from a British judge, who explained the judgment to a minor, has not become a standard practice. In order to provide the right to information and, in parallel, the representation of minors, I would like present briefly the example of the Spanish civil prosecutor: the fiscal, who could replace the court appointed guardian, which position is regulated in the current Hungarian Civil Procedure Code.

Keywords: Child-centred justice, judge’s letter, right to information, fiscal, court appointed guardian, Hungarian Civil Procedure Code

Adrienn Ronga: The Brexit’s public law and economic law impacts for the United Kingdom

The study focuses primarily on the current public law situation in the United Kingdom after Brexit, as well as its economic and future trends and the process of transformation of trade. In this context, I will describe the changes in the areas of the various industries in the UK economy, highlighting the emerging effects of trade, finance and the labor market, in the light of the emergence of Brexit. Overall, the aim of the study was to present and interpret certain economically relevant aspects of the implementation of the Brexit complex from a public law and economic point of view.

Keywords: European Union law, Brexit, public law, commercial law, financial law, labour law

Abstracts in historical studies

Kata Demeter: The „one-child system” in János Kodolányi’s publications

János Kodolányi was a prominent figure of the 20th century Hungarian literature and the „populist” writers movement. Starting from the 1920s János Kodolányi, who lived in the Ormánság, was interested in southern Baranya’s peasant life and the mentality of the „one-child system”, at that time, his writing talent manifested in his literary works. Soon after, he began to write publications, where he explored the subject in a manner typical of „populist” writers. His writings included strong critique of the middle class, critique of capitalism and the threat of German conquest. A main characteristic of his thinking was that he didn’t consider the custom of southern Baranya’s folk as a peculiarity of the region, rather as a problem that would seal the fate of the entire Hungarian nation. In my work I’m going to systematize Kodolányi’s image of the „one-child system”, based on the above mentioned aspects and his publicated works.

Keywords: Horthy era, hungarian peasantry, „one-child system”, „populist” writers movement, János Kodolányi

Kristóf Keller-Deák: The Váh Valley in the centre of military intelligence

In the period between the two world wars, the task of the Hungarian military attachés was to manage and organize the intelligence in the given country. Their task was to obtain information, which meant any information about the host country’s army or any activities related to the army. This was also the case in Czechoslovakia, which was of paramount importance in the era. As a result, the attachés shared any news and information of a military nature in their reports. Such a series of reports is about when in 1933 the then military attaché, lieutenant colonel Géza Lakatos, noticed the construction work in the Váh Valley, which he attributed to military purposes, so he reported the process of constructions in the region in several intelligence reports.

Keywords: Géza Lakatos, military attaché, Czechoslovakia, intelligence, reports, Váh Valley, industry

Krisztina Dóra Fodor: Syneros martyr, the ‘monachus’ in the light of the passions and martyrologies

This study analyzes the monastic tradition of Syneros martyr, who was one of the Pannonian martyrs under the Diocletianic persecution. The early researchers were embarrassed by the assumption of using the monachus word in the early 300’s years, since the first using of this word happened in the second half of the 4th Century in this area of the Roman Empire. The two survived passions about Syneros martyr do not help us to give the answer, because one of them conains the word monachus, but the other does not. In this study we are taking all the sources starting with the first insciptions in the cemetery of Sirmium, and after we continue with the copies of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum, the historical martyrologies and finally the tradition of the manuscripts of the passions. It can be determined from the sources that the word monachus could be a subsequent expansion. But this expansion was made by not the author / copier of the passion but the authors of the historical martyrologies, an anonymus author from Lyon in the early 9th Century. He created the monastic tradition of Syneros, which tradition returns in the passion of the 14th Century. This study tries to prove (strongly insisting on the sources), that Syneros could not be a monastic saint.

Keywords: Pannonia, Sirmium, Christian persecution, Syneros, martyr, monachus, monastic, martyrology

István Pap: The Financing role of the Central Commercial and Industtial Bank Limited Liabilizy Company in Budapest tenement houses and housing constructions (1908-1911)

In the first decade of the last century, masses came to Budapest from the countryside in order to find a job, although the housing capacity of the capital did not increase with it. Small-scales employees and workers faced the worst situation. Seeing this problem,various constraction contractors were provided loans by the Central Commercial and Industrial Bank for the building of rental houses in various parts of Budapest. These measures helped to reduce the housing shortage in the capital. This paper is to analyze these documents of the Central Commercial and Industrial Bank.

Keywords: Central Commercial and Industrial Bank, official colonies, István Bárczy, Budapest urban development plans

István Pap: Castiglioni Camillo and the first three businesses year of the Hungaraian-Italian Bank

Camillo Castiglioni, a financial genius, played a prominent role in 1920 in the establishment of the Hungarian-Italian Bank. Int he time between 1920 and 1923 the bank developed rapidly. He held shares in great amounts in various industrial and commercial companies. After the peacemaking in 1920 Hungary played a significant role in retail and corporate lending, also promoting the country’s economic development. The bank was part of the Eastern European expansion of Banca Commerciale Italiana. This paper focuses on the work of Cammillo Castiglioni in this time-periode at the directorate of Hungarian-Italian Bank.

Keywords: Camillo Castiglioni, Hungarian-Italian Bank, corporate shares, bank loans

Dániel Rátvay-Nagy: The numbers and proportions of students in science specialized schools based on native language and religion in four Hungarian cities between 1867-1914

In the second half of the 19th century a new secondary school type came to be in Hungary, which specialized in science. This new school type was based on Austrian-Prussian design, were not really popular according to the current stance of historiography. During the dualism only 15% of Hungarian students studied in real schools, while in Austria 30% of students went to real schools. The examined real schools actually show growth in this period, working on full capacity more than once over the years. The students of these real schools were mostly native speakers of hungarian. There may be a connection between the orders of the Ministry of Education and Religion and the changes in the student headcount. A high percentege of the students attending these schools were jews

Keywords: Dualism, secondary schools, education, ethnicity, religion, jews

Réka Zsidai: Education of László Festetics (1785– 1846) and today’s education system

At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, one of the defining figures of the Hungarian Enlightenment was Count György Festetics. Due to his rank and social status, the Count of Keszthely paid close attention to the upbringing of his son, Count László, in line with the expectations of the period.

György Festetics signed József Péteri Takáts with European culture in 1790 and István Kultsár as educator with his son in 1799. Count László’s upbringing was primarily determined by the principles of J. J. Rousseau and John Locke. These laws governing modern teaching, such as the National Core Curriculum and the Pedagogical Programme, have clear roots. The sources confirm that at the heart of László’s upbringing was the preparation for life in the office and court, which was the service of the common good.

In my study, I present the basic principles of contemporary education, such as moral, intellectual and physical education in the light of the National Core Curriculum in force and teacher competence.

Keywords: László Festetics, enlightenment, education, pedagogy, John Locke, J. J. Rousseau, educator, commonwealth, National Core Curriculum, Pedagogical Programme, teacher competence, instructions