Abstracts in theological studies
Péter Balogh: The Role of the Unity of Christians in Mission – The Example of Cooperation of the Apostle Paul and his Partners
The study examines the role of unity in the context of missiology. We can state that the unity of Christians supports the purpose of mission in itself, because experiencing love makes belonging to a community appealing. Besides, cooperation and the harmonized unity of spiritual gifts are necessary in the effectiveness of active involvement in mission. Based on literature on missiology we examine the role of relationships along the internal and external directions. We briefly summarize the teaching of the Apostle Paul concerning relationships which is demonstrated in his writings as well as his life’s example. His personal relationships, his co-workers and his contacts within the church stand as a model to us, helping the leaders to support cooperation, and also helping the members of the church to recognize and fulfil their role as partners in the harmonized unity of the body.
Keywords: mission, unity, relationship, the Apostle Paul
Covenant theology struggled from the beginning of the 16th century to the present day with the tension of unity and plurality in methodological approaches. From the Reformation federal theology strictly insisted on explanations based on exegetics of Scripture. However, the distinction between two or three main covenants divides covenant theology in two different approaches. This paper shows how Protestant federal theology explain the covenant of works and, the pactum salutis alongside the covenant of grace, and the research exposes the criticisms that regards God’s covenant with man as alone the covenant of grace. At the diachronic examination, the question arises concerning the relationship of covenant theology to the Ramist method. In the paper I argue that there is a close relationship between them, although the theological idea of two separate covenants is not an effect of Ramism.
Keywords: Covenant theology, methodology, covenant of works, covenant of grace, pactum salutis, Ramism
Zsolt Pétery-Schmidt: What Makes Theology Theological? The Way of Colin Gunton and John Webster into the Sphere of Dogmatics
The study seeks to identify the distinctive features of the discipline of theology. This is done with the help of the works of Colin E. Gunton (1941-2003) and John B. Webster (1955-2016) written in the field of dogmatica prolegomena. The authors are not well known in the Hungarian theological literature, despite the fact that they were internationally important and recognized theologians. Following Gunton’s seminal work (The One, the Three and the Many) the study takes into account the modern culture as the context for a contemporary theology. The tautology borrowed from Webster (Theological theology) helps to highlight the enduring value of theology in the context of modernity. The unpacking of the tautology for the protestant systematic theology is possible if one understands dogmatics as the holy discipline. In order to do this, it is important to be aware of the following paradox: theology cannot accept the anthropological foundations of the academic world, but it cannot be excluded from this world without undermining one of the main principles of academic research: diversity of opinion. The conclusion of the paper is: “What makes theology theological? By reflecting with responsibility the essence of God in the world through sanctified human reason. In this, theology is institutionally manifested as church in every sphere of life.”
Keywords: Webster, Gunton, theological theology, modernity, dogmatica prolegomena, holy
Zoltánné Stifler: „Semper Reformanda” within the Framework of the Digital Age in German and Hungarian Speaking Areas
„Semper reformanda”- The Church is always in need of renewal. This idea is not unknown to the 21st century church eighter. The digitalization has opened up new ways to preach the gospel. These wasy have to be studied in depth and they have to have theological fundation. Perhaps we can boldly state that a new theological discipline is being born. This study has examined with special attention the relations of the media with the Church in Swiss, German and Hungarian areas. After summing up the inner- and outherstate results our focus was on the ifficiancy and usebility of massmedia and of it’s communicational aspekts. I addressed the communicational problems brought about by the postmodern age in order to get a more nuanced picture of the impact of media on society.
Keywords: semper reformanda, digital, communication, reformation, digital
Abstracts of legal science studies
Brigitta Adler: Protocol and human rights: thoughts on the customs determining the practice of maternity care
The aim of this paper is to present – through a critical analysis – the functioning and characteristics of the obstetric system in Hungary through some of the basic practices of obstetric care that have been established and consolidated in Hungary, and through this, draw attention to its harmful practices.
This paper specifically addresses, among other things, the issue of consent and self-determination; it touches upon some routine practices, such as the prohibition of free movement during childbirth, the use of unindicated caesarean section, or paternalism.
Consistent with the findings of evidence-based medicine, it can be stated that the routine, unlawful practices described in this paper cannot be justified from a medical, legal or ethical perspective. The paper concludes that there is a need for a review of policies, protocols and practices that determine the quality of care and for the development of a nationally consistent set of procedures.
Keywords: maternity, legal custom in obsteric and midwifery care, patient rights, perinatal infringements, dignity in childbirth
Róbert Holló: American Indian Self-Determination: Brief History and The Political Economy of a Policy that Works
No right is said to be more sacred to any nation, to any people, than the right for freely determine its cultural, economic, social and – of course – political future without any other interference coming from outside. The mightiest realization of this right shows itself when nations can freely govern themselves. When this occurs, it is called the right Self-Determination. And when it is practiced it is named Self-Governance.
From Chief Justice Marshall’s Indian law trilogy and many of his other landmark decisions, through other legislations, the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 (ISDEAA) serves as a cornerstone of the modern federal Indian policy in the USA. In 1988, amendments to the ISDEAA created broadened the tribal self-governance leading the native American nations towards to their once-was-lived freedom for self-determination derived from their inherent tribal sovereignty. By providing a statutory basis for the broader movement of tribal self-governance, the tribal legislation, and recognizing its parliamentary-like special body formations advanced the proposition that Indian nations can provide better governmental and legislative services to their own members than can distant federal bureaucracies. Expanded and refined in subsequent legislation in 1994 and 2000, the Self-Governance Policy has proven so successful that today over 50% of all federal Indian nations assembled some kind of body for their own legislation and chose their affairs are carried out by themselves rather than federal agencies.
This article reviews the history of the modern U.S. federal Indian policy as well as casts light to basic forms and elements self-governance and its forms of bodies of tribal legislation of native American nations, points out the biggest challenges to the continued growth of legislation, and raises ideas to possible directions that could take in the coming years.
Keywords: USA, native American nations, self-determination, self-governance, legislation of native American nations
The roots of the institution can be traced back to Sweden in the early 1700s.The ombudsman is known internationally by a variety of names, such as people’s advocate, people’s lawyer, people’s rights defender, mediator, etc… The ombudsman is classically an official charged with countering maladministration and injustice. It is also internationally recognised as a defender of human rights.
In our view, not only is there no contradiction between these two approaches, but the concepts are mutually presuppositional. The ombudsmen’s tool is recommendation, i.e. they apply “soft law”, which cannot be enforced. After the change of regime in Hungary, the Parliamentary Commissioner for Citizens’ Rights fulfilled the general ombudsman function, and there were two separate ombudsmen. The new system made the structure single-headed. The Commissioner for Fundamental Rights is the general ombudsman, who has two deputies. One is responsible for the rights of future generations and the other for nationality rights. The Ombudsman is elected by Parliament from among lawyers of outstanding academic or professional standing with at least ten years’ experience, by a majority of at least two-thirds of all Members, who are at least thirty-five years of age and have considerable experience in the conduct, supervision or academic theory of proceedings concerning fundamental rights. The Head of State shall have the right of nomination. The Ombudsman may be called upon to hear cases of maladministration. The Ombudsman may also inspect bodies providing public services, not just the administration. The Commissioner for Fundamental Rights may not investigate the activities of the Parliament, the President of the Republic, the Constitutional Court, the State Audit Office, the Court of Audit, or the prosecution service, with the exception of the investigative bodies of the Public Prosecutor’s Office. The Ombudsman may initiate action by the prosecutor, file a criminal complaint and request the Constitutional Court to review the norms after the event.
Keywords: commissioner for fundamental rights, protection of fundamental rights, maladministration, ombudsman’s investigation
The phenomena related to eGovernment are constantly evolving as technology develops. In the era of digitalisation, the understanding of eGovernment concepts is a source of many difficulties for practitioners and researchers alike. In this paper (based on the Hungarian and international professional literature), I will attempt to explore the meanings behind some of the commonly used terms in this field by interpreting the concepts of eGovernment, eGovernance and eAdministration, and the difference between the terms „electronic” and „digital” government.
Keywords: public administration, eGovernment, digitalization, digital government, eAdministration
The special legal order can in general be introduced in exceptional situations of emergency or crisis which cannot be effectively managed within the framework of the normal legal order, through existing legislation or procedures.
The State of danger can also be considered special within the special legal order, since it is the only element that is not aimed at the armed protection of the state.
In part, the State of danger declared in connection with the coronavirus pandemic led to the 9th amendment of the Fundamental Law of Hungary, according to which the regulation of the state of danger will be as follows from 1 July 2023: In the event of a serious event endangering the safety of life and property, in particular an elementary calamity or industrial accident, and in order to avert the consequences of these, the Government may declare a state of danger in order to avert the consequences of these disasters.
Keywords: special legal order, State of danger, coronavirus, pandemic
The date of the parliamentary elections is not considered as a public holiday, so the different labour law rules giverning it are not taken into account from a labour law point of view. In practice, this often results in a significant challenge as to how employees working outside the normal working hours can exercise their constitutional voting right. In this paper, I will briefly attempt to resolve this problem, also describing the labour law rules applicable to members of the ballot-counting committee, who generally work on a voluntary basis, indicating the regulatory gap where legislative intervention may be necessary.
Keywords: labour law, elections, voting, vote counter, right to vote
The present study explores the changes of higher education politics affecting the institutions of theological education in the Hungarian Reformed Church during the period of the fall of communism in Hungary. My research method rests primarily on the study and analysis of legal texts and preparatory works of legislation, especially those concerning theological higher education. I assume that the “state recognition” of reformed colleges made a great impact on tuitional as well as organizational aspects of theological education in the past two decades. My goal is to present how and to what extent the 1993 state recognition influence the organizational and educational activity of reformed theological universities and colleges. Therefore, I will first concentrate on the legal status of theological institutions in the historic era of transition of 1989 in Hungary, followed by a discussion of the importance of state recognition in general. I will then analyze the consequences of the alteration of legal terms resulting from state recognition and the introduction of the credit system and how these affected organizational, educational and budgetary autonomy.
Keywords: state recognition, Hungary, higher education policy, transition, end of Communism, reformed theological colleges, higher education act, Parliament, accreditation, credit system
Abstracts in historical studies/Geschichtswissenschaftliche Resümees
In this study I researched the monthly paper of the National Association of Hungarian Women (MANSz.) named “Magyar Asszony” focusing on its releases between 1921-1932. On one hand I aimed to investigate the general female image of MANsz. On the other hand I wanted to compare the ideas presented in the paper with the ideology of the so called reform conservatives such as Klebelsberg Kuno and Gyula Szekfű. The female image portrayed in Magyar asszony was mixed, when it came to women’s role in the family it reached back to traditional values. At the same time when it came to women’s role in society they wanted to define no limitations. A good example of this is supporting the idea of completely opening higher education to women. They paid special attention to social and cultural fields, driving the increased mobilization of women towards these areas. They acknowledged this idea as a national political issue. This can be viewed as the expansion of the traditional female role to wider society (social motherhood). With this they aimed to to ensure national spiritual unity. This idea was similar to reform conservative concepts. Their work also contributed to the consolidation policy of the Unified Party.
Keywords: National Association of Hungarian Women, reform conservative, Magyar Asszony, Horthy-era, charitable-social activities, cultural work
„Hey, ich bin jetzt ein Fischer, der Bilder aus dem Äther fischt!” Dieser Satz wurde 1912, genau vor 110 Jahren, auf der Terrasse einer Villa in Pécel von einem damals 18-jährigen Jungen geäußert. Er sagte es zu seiner Schwester Edit, die als erste Person auf der Welt erfuhr, dass sein jüngerer Bruder Dénes Mihály gerade den Vorläufer des Fernsehens, den Fernsehapparat, erfunden hatte. Dieses Gerät sollte schließlich als Telehor in die Geschichte der Technik eingehen. Das war nicht seine einzige Innovation. Auch viele andere Erfindungen tragen seinen Namen. Dénes Mihály ist einer der produktivsten ungarischen Erfinder in der Geschichte der Wissenschaft. Seine beispiellose Kreativität und Philanthropie zeigten sich auch, als er versuchte, seine jüdischen Kollegen vor den Schrecken in Hitlerdeutschland zu retten. Diese Studie stellt anhand ungarischer und deutscher Quellen das vergessene ungarische Genie vor.
Schlagwörter: Dénes Mihály, Telehor, Fernsehapparat, Erfinder
Oszkár Jászi’s relationship to the Jewish community and his Jewish identity (or lack thereof) have long been the subject of professional debate. Jászi was born into a socially integrated Jewish family and became a committed advocate of progressive ideas during his university years. Forgetting his Jewish origins, he attacked his political opponents, often using rhetoric similar to that of anti-Semites, which led many to label him an anti-Semite or a self-hating Jew. Jászi always rejected such criticism, but in the latter part of his life he admitted that his attacks may indeed have given rise to many misunderstandings. In my study, I will draw on Jászi’s writings and letters to try to present the critical points through which his views, especially his position on the ʿJewish questionʾ, can be better understood. In my opinion, in Jászi’s case, we can rightly speak of self-antisemitism, and also of the fact that his harsh use of words, especially in the 1910s, contributed to the intensification of anti-Jewish sentiment.
Keywords: Jewish identity, antisemitism, Jewish self-hatred, socialism,Ni community identity
Anna Kiss: The possible analysis methods of the representation of the Vietnam War in hungarian point of view
Vietnam War was one of the most determinative conflict through the period of Cold War and it had a key role in the media broadcastings. To get a comprehensive overview about the representation of Vietnam War’s hungarian point of view we have to analyse the available sources like archive articles, memories and other documents. Through the method of the analysis we have to have a critical attitude because there are several factors which affects on the content of the documents. In this case we can use the Critical Discourse Analyse method with which we can disassemble the texts to layers. Through the analysis of the press we can observe the location and the extent of the articles, and the nearby articles on the specified page.
Keywords: Vietnam War, Cold War, press analysis, Critical Discourse Analysis, helicopter disaster
The Ráday family had several of its members known as players in the evolution of Hungarian clerical and scientific life. According to the family tradition, they traced back their roots to the eleventh century, and to the city of Caserta near Naples. Members of the Ratold (or Rátót) kindred were the “mythical ancestors” mentioned by Gedeon I Ráday, in his genealogical research. The present paper discusses first the history of the impactful noble family, in comparison with the work entitled “A Rádayak” by Ferenc Kazinczy and published in 1827. Origins of the Rádays are just as foggy as their early estate history itself. However, it could be stated that during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries parts of their landed estates became hypothecated. The sums from these manoeuvres were used for acquiring more estates, and to support strategically important marriages. Thus, from being part of lower nobility the Ráday family rose step by step to gain more and more power. From the seventeenth century, the landed estates owned by the family members were mostly situated in Nógrád, and Pest-Pilis-Solt Counties. Details stated above were discovered by comparing archival data with the results of previous genealogy research, especially with regard to the religious background of the marriages mentioned above. By examining these marriages, it is clear that the Ráday family, as adherent of the Reformed Church, has positioned itself both religiously and strategically successfully.
Keywords: Ráday, genus, estate history, marriage, religious
Balázs Kovács: On the border of “socreal” and “socmodern” The construction history of the housing estate on Fiastyúk Street
After the Second World War, the Stalinist model gradually became dominant in Hungary. This rearranger was available in all areas of life. The Communist Party, representing the ‘working class’, began large-scale housing construction with forced industrialization. All this was necessary because of the destruction of the war. Housing estate construction has become a major element in the reconstruction of Budapest. The industrial part of the thirteenth district of the capital was suitable for the construction of residential houses. This is how the area bounded by Fiastyúk Street and the Rákos stream was designed in a “socreal” style. As a result of world politics, the “socialist” style gradually declined from 1953, and the more cost-effective “socmodern” took its place in design. In the case of the housing estate on Fiastyúk Street, what style differences can be observed, and how has “history” changed the plans? Methodologically, I analyzed it with a tool describing archival design sources. It was not my intention to critique the aesthetic styles of dictatorial power imposed on architecture. I presented the concepts in a presentation way, also showing the professional-public contradictions about them. My conclusion is that the housing estate was built in two styles, yet its urban character is unity. In addition to historical science, the study can be interpreted in the context of building and construction history.
Keywords: socialist realism, „socmodern”, Fiastyúk street warren, construction history, meaning paradigm
Enikő Semsey: About Germany’s political- and cultural history connecting to the Stalin-statue set up in East-Berlin, 1951
The goal of my study is to briefly present the political and cultural history of Germany after the second World War. After highlighting the main elements of its background , I study the fate of the Stalin statue built in East Berlin in 1951, through which I tried to present the political ideology that faithfully reflected the significance of the Soviet system on the eastern part of the divided Germany. During my work I used Lukas Verlag’s book Der Rote Gott – Stalin and „die Deutschen” titled volume and worked with contemporary press sources. In my research, I came to the conclusion that the sculpture, as a visual formulation, as a permanent element of everyday life, may have become an important – and controversial – part of German national identity between 1949 and 1991.
Keywords: German history after 1945, Stalin-statue in East-Berlin, german national identity, social realism
Krisztián Attila Timári: The political system of the Habsburg Empire in the East and the road to the last Turkish war
The policy towards the East was highly valorized under Emperor Joseph II, as the conquest of territory in the West did not bring results even at the cost of complicated diplomatic and military struggles. Catherine the Great and her empire showed a similar desire for conquest, so the common goal after contact was the defeat of the Ottoman Empire. The alliances and events that took shape in the 1780s initially delayed the outbreak of war, but joint meetings between the two rulers foreshadowed a war for which neither empire could be fully prepared. The inclusion of the letters makes it easier to identify the wariness of each side towards the other and the distribution of conquests that seemed to be in the offing. In the drift of events and after a series of setbacks, the politics of the East finally forced the Habsburg Empire to make a serious decision. War finally became inevitable and broke the relative peace in the eastern territories.
Keywords: Policy, War, Turks, Habsburg Empire
The aim of the following study is to process a slice of the local, economic, and military history of Nagykőrös between 1918 and 1920, those that have barely been presented before. It strives to paint a picture about the history of Nagykőrös between 1918 and 1920 with the help of the rich archival material that remains as well as knowledge on the literature of the topic. The following points will take shape as the essay continues to unfold. Firstly, how a market town struggles to survive social and economic regressions caused by the World War I. Secondly, how will the situation change when the institutional system of the Hungarian Soviet Republic enters the city completely overturning the current social and economic status quo, which the subsequent Romanian occupation not improves, but only worsens. Finally, how can the city then embark on a path of consolidation following the entry of National Army units.
Keywords: Local history, social history, economic history, Nagykőrös, The Great War, Hungarian Soviet Republic, Romanian occupation, National Army, Horthy