Remonda Rofaiel: Ethical and Biblical Reflections on Refugee and Minority Issues: Global and Egyptian Perspectives

Overview of the refugee and minority issues

Refugees and religious minority groups face unique challenges and are vulnerable on a global scale. Refugees, forced to flee their homes due to conflict, persecution, or violence, often encounter additional difficulties when they belong to religious minority groups. These individuals not only experience the hardships of displacement but also grapple with religious discrimination, intolerance, and the threat of violence based on their beliefs[1]. They may face barriers in accessing humanitarian aid, protection, and asylum, leaving them particularly vulnerable to further marginalization and exclusion. Some of these groups, for example, but not limited to Black Americans[2], Roma people in Hungary[3], Ukrainian refugees[4], and Christians in Egypt.

It is essential to acknowledge and address the specific needs and rights of these groups, ensuring their safety, dignity, and freedom of religion or belief.

By narrowing down the context to Egypt, there are about 410,000 refugees and asylum-seekers from 59 different countries. The largest number of refugees in Egypt are from Sudan, followed by Syrians. Other significant countries of origin include South Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Yemen, Somalia, and Iraq. When it comes to marginalized groups, we have two categories to look at, one is ethnic and the other is religious.

The stories of the Nubians and the Amazigh as ethnic groups in Egypt are narratives of resilience, determination, and cultural pride. Despite being labeled as outcasts, these communities have persisted in their efforts to preserve their heritage and reclaim their rightful place in the world. Their struggles serve as a reminder of the importance of recognizing and respecting the diverse cultural harmony of our global society.

The religious situation in Egypt is characterized by the presence of a significant Christian minority, primarily Coptic Christians[5]. The Coptic Orthodox Church is the largest Christian denomination in Egypt, representing the majority of Christians in the country. It has a rich history and a strong presence in Egyptian society. The head of the Coptic Orthodox Church is the Pope of Alexandria[6], who serves as the spiritual leader of the Coptic Christian community.

Overall, while figures like Martin Luther King Jr.[7] played a significant role in defending the civil rights of Black Americans, we still need many more examples like King to advocate for a life of dignity for those who are treated as second-class citizens. This requires concerted efforts from governments, international organizations, and civil society to provide adequate support, protection, and inclusive policies that guarantee the rights and well-being of these individuals, fostering an environment of respect, tolerance, equality, and religious freedom for all.

Importance of ethical and biblical perspectives

The ethical and biblical perspectives play a crucial role in addressing the challenges faced by the outcast. Here are some key reasons why these perspectives are important:

1. Human Dignity: Ethical and biblical perspectives emphasize the inherent worth and dignity of every human being. Refugees, who have been forced to leave their homes and face numerous challenges, often experience a loss of dignity. Ethical and biblical frameworks remind us of the importance of upholding the dignity of refugees, treating them with respect, and recognizing their rights as individuals created in the image of God[8].

2. Compassion and Empathy: Both ethical and biblical perspectives call for compassion and empathy towards those suffering. Understanding the experiences and hardships of refugees through an ethical and biblical lens helps foster empathy and a deep sense of compassion. As the Christian philosopher, Henri Nouwen says: “Compassion asks us to go where it hurts, to enter into places of pain, to share in brokenness, fear, confusion, and anguish”[9]. This empathy drives individuals and communities to take action, provide support, and advocate for the rights and well-being of refugees.

3. Justice and Fairness: Ethical and biblical perspectives emphasize the principles of justice and fairness. They call for addressing the root causes of displacement, advocating for just policies, and ensuring equal treatment and opportunities for refugees. These perspectives challenge societal structures and systems that perpetuate marginalization and discrimination, urging individuals and communities to work towards a more just and equitable society for refugees and “peace, dignity, and equality on a healthy planet”[10].

Migration, refugees, and minority experiences are recurring themes in the Bible, highlighting the importance of understanding these narratives for contemporary Christian ministry. This section provides three significant biblical examples of migration, refugees, and minorities: the Exodus, the Exile, and Jesus as a refugee. By examining these narratives, we can draw lessons that can inform and inspire Christian ministry in addressing the challenges faced by displaced individuals and marginalized communities.

  • The Exodus: Lessons from the Israelites’ journey and liberation from Egypt.

The Exodus narrative recounts the Israelites’ liberation from slavery in Egypt and their subsequent journey to the Promised Land.

  • The Exile: The Babylonian captivity and the experiences of the Jewish people.

The Exile refers to the period when the Jewish people were forced into captivity and relocated to Babylon.

In both stories, we can see closely the experiences of displacement and marginalization faced by the Israelites as a displaced and marginalized community, and the exiled community in a foreign land. These experiences include the hardships of the wilderness journey, loss of homeland, cultural assimilation pressures, the struggle to maintain their faith and identity, and their struggle for belonging.

  • Jesus as a Refugee: Examining the flight to Egypt.

The flight to Egypt by Jesus and his family is a lesser-known but significant example of refugee experiences in the Bible. Jesus’ family were seeking refuge in Egypt to escape persecution with all their vulnerability, challenges, and difficulties, which are the basics faced by any refugee group.

Implications for Christian ministry

The implications for Christian ministry can be explored by considering Jesus’ identification as a refugee and drawing insights from the Exodus and Exile narratives. By examining these narratives, we can gain a deeper understanding of the challenges faced by refugees and the call to minister to them.

When we think of Jesus’ experience as a refugee, we need to emphasize the importance of fostering compassion, hospitality, and advocacy in ministry to refugees and marginalized communities, recognizing the inherent worth and dignity of every individual, and highlighting the need for compassion, empathy, and support. Jesus’ experience as a refugee in Egypt after his birth (Matthew 2:13-15) demonstrates his identification with vulnerable and displaced individuals. This calls Christian ministries to stand in solidarity with refugees, recognizing their humanity, and advocating for their rights and well-being.

The Exodus and Exile narratives highlight God’s concern for justice and liberation. Therefore, in my view, Christian ministry should involve advocating for the rights and dignity of refugees, addressing systemic issues that contribute to displacement, and working towards just and equitable policies. We also should emphasize the importance of advocating for the rights and well-being of minorities, providing practical support and resources, and journeying alongside them in their search for freedom, a place to call home, and the call to work towards justice and restoration.

The good news is that Christian organizations globally have been actively engaged in efforts to assist minorities, refugees, and marginalized groups[11]. These organizations recognize the biblical mandate to love and serve others, especially those in need. They provide essential humanitarian aid[12], including food, shelter, healthcare, and education[13], to displaced individuals and communities. Through their various initiatives, Christian organizations strive to create a more inclusive and compassionate society, reflecting the teachings of Jesus and embodying the principles of love, justice, and solidarity.

However, the world still requires additional assistance and support, echoing the words of Jesus who said, “The harvest is plentiful, but the workers are few.” Matthew 9:37-38.


In conclusion, the exploration of refugee and minority issues in both the global and Egyptian contexts highlights the pressing need for attention and action. The significance of ethical and biblical perspectives cannot be overstated, as they provide a solid foundation for understanding and addressing these challenges. By drawing from ethical principles and biblical examples, we recognize the inherent value and dignity of all individuals, particularly those who are marginalized and displaced. The implications for Christian ministry are profound, as they call us to embody compassion, justice, and solidarity. Christian organizations and individuals worldwide have a vital role to play in providing assistance, advocating for systemic change, and working towards the well-being and inclusion of refugees and minority groups. By embracing these implications, we can actively contribute to building a more just, compassionate, and inclusive society, fulfilling the call to love our neighbors as ourselves.


Cone, James H.: God of the Oppressed, New York, Maryknoll, Orbis Books, 1997.

Sztojka Szabina: ”A Way Towards a Roma Theology: Using Black Theology of Liberation as a Source”, Master’s thesis, Columbia Theological Seminary, 2018.

Online Sources


  1. (Accessed: 30th of november, 2023).
  2. Cone, James H.: God of the Oppressed, New York, Maryknoll, Orbis Books, 1997, 16.
  3. Sztojka Szabina: ”A Way Towards a Roma Theology: Using Black Theology of Liberation as a Source”, Master’s thesis, Columbia Theological Seminary, 2018.
  4. (Accessed: 30th of november, 2023).
  5. (Accessed: 30th of november, 2023).
  6. (Accessed: 30th of november, 2023).
  7. (Accessed: 30th of november, 2023).
  8. ”So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them.” – Genesis 1:27 (NIV)
  9. Henri Nouwen, a Catholic theologian and writer, emphasizes the transformative power of compassion. He calls for a deep engagement with the suffering of others, encouraging us to empathize and stand in solidarity with those who are hurting. This quote emphasizes the importance of entering into the experiences of others, sharing in their pain, and embracing our shared humanity through acts of compassion and empathy.
  10. The slogan of the UN. (Accessed: 30th of november, 2023).
  11. Faces of Hope Foundation serves people affected by interpersonal violence. (Accessed: 30th of november, 2023).
  12. Caritas is a Catholic organization, works in the field of medical aid, such as providing free medical examinations. (Accessed: 30th of november, 2023).
  13. Evangelical Theological Seminary in Cairo (ETSC) grants a scholarship for many Sudanese students for theological education. (Accessed: 30th of november, 2023).