KRE-DIt 2024/1 Abstracts

Abstracts in theological studies

Máté Márkus: Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy

The question of the article is how to think about the human predicament. The author notes that all dogmatics ask questions about the situation of man, even those that have God as their subject because it is God who determines everything, including man. Dogma means thought, but all thought is based on experience. The experience of “others” or the experience of “self”. The author reminds us that for the “self” all dogma, thought, expressed in the course of dogmatic history, is based on the experience of “others”, even if they are the “others” behind the biblical material, with the authority of divine self-disclosure. In this way, two ways of thinking have emerged in the history of Christian thought. The one based on the experience of others alone, and the one based on the experience of others and self. These two schools of thought, orthodoxy, and heterodoxy, are compared by the author in terms of functions, sources, and methods.

Keywords: orthodoxy, heterodoxy, liberal, history of dogma, Tillich

Kata Pető-Veres: A Study of Contemporary Reformed Baptism Sermons in the Hungarian Reformed Church

The Order of Worship, which was introduced in 1985 and is still in force, defines the baptism sermon at a baptismal service as a very short sermon, which according to the liturgy is to be preached on the basis of the passage on the Great Commission (Mt 28,18–20). According to the Manual of Preachers, which appeared a few years earlier in 1980, the baptism sermon should answer three questions: „Who received it?”, „What does it symbolize?”, and „What does it oblige us to do?”. By answering these three questions, we satisfy the requirements of the sacramental sermon. In practice, however, we find that most pastors read a second, chosen text in addition to the Great Commission and begin to preach based on it. The danger of this is that the Great Commission is relegated to the background and the chosen verse is not used to speak about the essence, dogmatics, and life-forming significance of baptism, but about anything else that can be formulated on the basis of the chosen passage. In this way, the genre of the sacramental sermon merges with the genre of the sermon in worship. In my research, I will explore this phenomenon and the themes considered relevant by pastors speaking at baptisms today.

Keywords: baptism, Great Commission, secondary base text, contemporary sermons, topics of sermons of baptism

Petra Krisztina Ratkovics: Beyond Quotations. Other Forms of Intertextuality Within the Scripture

In this article, we are investigating an important question in the field of Old and New Testament relationships: how is the OT present in the NT? We are using Richard Hays’s book Echoes of Scripture as a starting point and his threefold classification: citations/quotations, allusions, and echoes. As a fourth category, the concept of cultural intertextuality is introduced, based on a shared cultural code between writer and reader. The first three forms of intertextuality are mainly concerned with syntactical and lexical correspondence, while the fourth, cultural intertextuality is derived from literary studies and looks to the OT as an „ideational resource” for themes, motifs, images, etc. expanded upon in the NT. We are detailing the seven criteria Hays laid down to help identify intertextuality (but especially allusion and echo), and arguing that the understanding and research of OT presence in the NT should be extended to include the above-detailed forms of intertextuality.

Keywords: intertextuality, relationship of Old and New Testament, allusion, Richard Hays

Zoltánné Stifler: Communication Psychology of Influence and Persuasion with a Homiletical Perspective

All communication is intended to persuade. But to do so, it requires the simultaneous application of a range of knowledge and the coordinated action of all parties involved in the communication. Communication psychology considers the knowledge and appropriate use of the psychology of persuasion and influence as a prerequisite for successful communication. If the party initiating the communication applies these skills, it is more likely to achieve success with its listeners. This study aims to present the psychological and communicative aspects of influence and persuasion and to highlight one of its homiletical aspects.

Keywords: influence, homiletics, preaching, communication, communication psychology, persuasion, preaching, preacher, psychology

Abstracts of legal science studies

Csaba Cservák: Types of nationalities and their brief history in Hungary

There are three categories of national minorities. A significant proportion of Hungarians live abroad. This is why minority protection is important for Hungary. The protection of national minorities has also been a priority for Hungary under the historical constitution. Certain ethnic groups had a special status. Currently, 13 ethnic groups are granted nationality status in Hungary. A similar preference for Turks and Italians would be justified by the historical past.

Keywords: minority protection, discrimination, Hungarians, autonomy, historical constitution.

Zsolt Dániel Gyebrovszki : The Impact of the Multilingualism of the European Union on National Legislation, Particularly on the Consistent Implementation and Enforcement of the Rules on Competition Damages Actions 

Contrary to the public enforcement of competition law by competition authorities, which dominates competition law in the European Union and in the Member States, the system of competition law damages actions inherently mixes public and private law rules, which operate on the basis of different legal concepts and different conceptual sets. Competition damages actions have been regulated in the form of a directive, which, taking into account the heterogeneity of private law, the multilingual nature of the European Union, and the semantic diversity of EU and national legal terminology, has created legislative and enforcement challenges resulting in linguistic inconsistencies. A number of legal issues have surrounded competition damages actions since the Courage case, but the introduction of Directive 2014/104/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2014 on certain rules governing actions for damages under national law for breach of the rules on competition (“Directive”) does not seem to have resolved all of these issues.

Keywords: competition law, competition damages actions, European Union, legislation, multilingualism

Andrea Hatlaczki-Kálmán: Current changes in penal law, or the system of categories and credits

The article presents a systemic description of the conceptual amendments to Act No CCXL of 2013 on the enforcement of penalties, measures, certain coercive measures, and the detention of offenders (Bv. tv.), which will come into effect on 1 March 2024. The author wrote about the amendment of legislation, which involves introducing new legal provisions and abolishing existing ones. However, it is not yet known whether an implementing regulation amending the standard will be published. The author refrained from presenting detailed rules in this text, as it would have been an irresponsible undertaking. Instead, the author hopes that this comprehensive review will serve as a prelude to a more detailed description of the changes at a later date. Due to the upcoming legislative changes, my research will be based solely on the amended provisions of the Bv. tv. and the normative Act XCVII of 2023, which contains amendments to Act XCVII of 2023 on criminal law and other related acts, as well as the explanatory memoranda of these laws. The new legal instruments are believed to promote the legal and social objectives of imprisonment more effectively due to their objectivity and capacity to influence the personality of the prisoner.

Keywords: law enforcement, execution of sentence, amendment of legislation, category and credit system

Viktória Kovács: Reflections on the Values and Regulation Behind the Law

The relationship between law, morality, and religion is intricate and multifaceted, with norms exhibiting varying influences depending on societal nature and culture. The study Reflections on the Values and Regulation Behind the Law scrutinizes these relationships to elucidate their mutual shaping and impact. Over time, the dynamic between law, morality, and religion has evolved, leading to the separation of church and secular norms. While law governs societal operation, morality, and religion persist in shaping human conduct. Presently, the clash of values, evident in disparities between religious practices and legal norms, as well as the media’s role in shaping social norms, is particularly salient. Moreover, differing interpretations of crime exist within legal and religious systems. This study underscores that law, morality, and religion comprise interconnected regulatory spheres, and their alignment can contribute to the harmonious functioning of society.

Keywords: legislation, religion, law, morality, society

Viktória Kovács: The Process of European Integration in Ukraine: Pacta Sunt Servanda – Concluded Contracts Must Be Respected

This research explores the process of Ukraine’s integration into the European Union, delving into the initial steps taken by the young state toward independence and its subsequent efforts to forge a distinct national identity. It examines the pivotal milestones that marked Ukraine’s path towards European integration, including signing the Association Agreement and establishing the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area. The article discusses the possibilities and challenges faced by Ukraine in its pursuit of EU membership, with a particular focus on the rights of national minorities, exemplified by the Hungarian minority in Ukraine. Obstacles and mistakes in Ukraine’s integration journey are critically analyzed, highlighting laws that have narrowed the rights of national minorities and garnered international criticism. The study also presents the views of international bodies, such as the Venice Commission and the OSCE High Commissioner for Minorities, who have expressed concerns about discrimination and failure.

Keywords: Ukraine, European integration, minority rights

Anna Kovácsné Molnár: The establishment and development of the protection of children in Hungary

During my research, I examined the victims of crimes requiring special care, the children, who have been increasingly protected globally by legal tools. I considered the Hungarian legal regulations, their EU and international background, which served as bases to the protection of children introduced in criminal procedures. Furthermore, I analyse the children’s rights provided by the act on the protection of children, the act on churches, and the Fundamental Law of Hungary. This allows me to compare the opportunities ensured for children by the different legal regimes. By examining child-friendly law enforcement I also touch upon European and international protection of children, which affected the development of the related Hungarian acts. The goal of the historical overview, as well as of the European and international review is to provide a historical guide to the development of the protection of children from the era of King Stephen I until it became an essential requirement also in criminal procedures. I also want to reveal whether the development of children’s protection, and the development of the related legal regulations have effect on society.

Keywords: justice, prosecution, child, child protection, church, state, victim, treatment

Edina Lajos: On the Moral Implications of a Constitutional Complaint

There are two scientific approaches to morality. One is public morality and the other is critical morality. The best way to enforce fundamental constitutional rights is by means of a constitutional complaint, which can take several forms. Under the previous Constitutional Court Act, a constitutional complaint could only be lodged if the legislation applied was itself in breach of fundamental rights. This constellation, however, entailed the possibility of legal loopholes. The new Constitutional Court Act defines three sub-types of constitutional complaint. Very specifically, the specific remedy of the Prosecutor General is also included in the category of constitutional complaint. The actual constitutional complaint is modelled on the German model. This means that a judicial decision can also be challenged on the grounds of a breach of fundamental rights. In practice, the Constitutional Court receives very few cases.

Keywords: public morality and critical morality, law and morality, Constitutional Court, legal remedies, constitutional complaint, legal vacuum, questions of fact

István Széchenyi: Cryptocurrencies and Related Legal Challenges

The rapid rise of cryptocurrencies has created new legal challenges both in the financial and legal sectors. This study examines the most significant legal issues for crypto traders, including taxation, leverage, and inheritance. The author, among other things, points out the similarities and differences between cryptocurrencies and traditional financial instruments and makes recommendations for improving legal regulations. In addition to precise definitions, the study emphasizes the importance of choosing the right crypto exchange, describes the system of crypto taxation in Hungary, and criticizes ESMA’s leverage restrictions. The main differences between centralized and decentralized crypto exchanges are also discussed in the study, bringing up the issue of inheritance. One of the author’s main conclusions is that cryptocurrencies should be treated similarly to traditional financial instruments in legal and tax matters.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, crypto, crypto money, blockchain, taxation, leverage, ESMA

István Széchenyi: Freedom of Expression and Responsibility in Social Media: Ethical Dilemmas in the 21st Century

The rise of social media has fundamentally transformed communication and the flow of information, effectively becoming a new arena for public discourse. Freedom of speech has gained new dimensions, raising numerous ethical and legal issues. This study examines these dilemmas, focusing on the collision between freedom of expression and human dignity on social media platforms. The study addresses the responsibility of social media platforms in content regulation and the spread of disinformation as well as the global challenges arising from differing ethical approaches. It also examines regulatory efforts within the European Union and the phenomenon of filter bubbles. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of these issues.

Keywords: social media, freedom of speech, freedom of expression, human dignity, fake news, hate speech, platform

Dániel Szűcs: Following a Judicial Initiative, or a Case Study on a Motion Pending Before the Constitutional Court

The study examines the judicial initiative underlying a case pending before the Constitutional Court, in which the petitioner Regional Court challenges the compatibility with the Fundamental Law of a provision of the law according to which the prosecutor is also entitled to bring an action for a ban on the activity or for compensation for the damage caused by the activity in the event of a breach of the legislation on the welfare and protection of animals. In accordance with the methodology of jurisprudential analysis, the analysis primarily applies a fundamental (legal) doctrinal approach, which is presented through the practice of the Constitutional Court and the position and findings of the relevant Constitutional Court decisions. Comparative analysis is used as a secondary research methodology, synthesizing the essence of the legal arguments presented in the petition and in the opinions issued in the case (Minister of Justice, Prosecutor General, Deputy Commissioner for Fundamental Rights Ombudsman for Future Generations).

Keywords: animal protection, animal protection law, public prosecutor, commencement of an action, constitutional complaint, judicial initiative, individual review, case law analysis, case study

Abstracts in historical studies

Krisztián Bödő: Vásárosnaményi báró Eötvös Ignác tartozásai és hitelezői

The bankruptcy proceedings against Ignác Eötvös the Younger (1786-1851), father of József Eötvös, began on 20 September 1841 in Borsod County. The litigation dragged on for decades, and the case was finally closed only in 1899. This study aims to shed light on one of the key antecedents and backgrounds of the bankruptcy case: the family’s debts. Research in nine counties has been decisively successful, with a total of two hundred and fourteen debt records collected from the records of the General Assembly. Although the amounts collected do not provide a complete picture of the family’s financial situation, they do shed light on the background to the bankruptcy and the formation of Ignác Eötvös’s circle of creditors, which was the second question addressed in the study. The identifiable individuals suggest that the circle of creditors was rather heterogeneous, with a significant number of loan transactions being backed by merchants, especially for larger sums of money.

Keywords: bankruptcy, debt, creditor, county

Péter Farkas: “Nobiles Iobagiones Episcopatus Wesprimiensis Exercituare Debentes”: Aspects of the Ecclesiastical Nobility of the Veszprém Bishopric 13-14th Century History (Taxation, Judging, Ownership)

The ecclesiastical nobles of the Veszprém bishopric with military service were first selected from among the people of the church’s conditioning. The noble serfs had limited freedom in terms of ownership: with the permission of the bishop, they could participate in property exchange, purchase, and sale of property. In the case of entering nobles, we meet with the provision of the possibility of leaving the church service. Achieving the tax exemption of the estates of the ecclesiastical nobles was also a process that took place in different ways depending on the institution. Achieving judicial independence was also part of a process consisting of several steps: the first step was achieving the Church’s judicial privilege. Legal service privileges for noble serfs could only follow after that. Here, too, we see the same thing as with regard to taxation and ownership: the privileges apply only to those who enter and not generally to the entire social class. Between the noble serfs of the Veszprém bishopric, there was a difference in both legal and economic terms. In the 14th century, the significantly more favorable situation of the entrants of noble origin can also be found in the property-acquiring and concentrating will of the Veszprém bishopric.

Keywords: Nobles of the Church, Bishop of Veszprém, medieval Hungary, Church history, military history

Ádám Gyócsi: The National Assembly at Kereszténysziget and The Sultan’s Congratulatory Letter

My study aims to explore a slice of events in Transylvania in the late 17th century. This is the time of the wars of liberation from the Turks. In doing so, I will discuss Imre Thököly’s brief reign as prince of Transylvania and the battle that brought him to the throne. I will then look at the events leading up to the first and last Diet of Kereszténysziget, with particular reference to the letter of congratulations from the Sultan delivered at the Diet. The full Hungarian translation of the letter in question was done by me. The Turkish original of the text was also translated into Latin in the 17th century. I have translated the Latin into Hungarian. The concluding part of the essay gives an insight into the work of the quickly completed Diet, following the chain of cause and effect and foreshadowing Imre Thököly’s last, doomed act on Hungarian land. The focus of the essay is on the translation and the text that contains it. I have tried to place the text in the cavalcade of events that is rapidly unfolding. These events marked the final days of the “independent” Principality of Transylvania.

Keywords: Imre Thököly, Transylvania, Kereszténysziget, Turkish, Sultan’s congratulatory letter

Zsolt Balázs Pétsy: The Peace Priests and the Exercise of Power by the Party-State in Hungary

The Hungarian socialist party-state, in its political power and ideological goals, has put the peace priests at the service of its own interests in its fight against those defined as “clerical reactionary elements”. In my essay, I would like to draw attention to the sharp differences between the state-directed activities of the clerical peace movement and the official peace objectives published in the public domain – in the press and in propaganda – based on the controversial word ‘peace priest’. The study and processing of the archival sources make the contradiction tangible in the text of the documents. An important aspect of a more detailed study of the national organization of the peace movement and the localized functioning of the peace committees organized at the regional level could be to directly investigate the impact of the peace priests on society and believers. The ideological contradictions behind the clerical peace movement should also be considered in the processing of archival sources.

Keywords: peace priest, clerical peace movement, ecclesiastical peace movement, priestly peace movement, Opus Pacis, clerical reaction, Vatican, State Office for the Church, party-state, state security

Zsolt Balázs Pétsy: Report on the Consultative Meeting of Representatives of the Church Offices of the Socialist Countries (1986)

The purpose of this source note is to provide a textual presentation of the Report on the Consultative Meeting of the Representatives of the Church Offices of the Socialist Countries and to present the historical significance of the source. Representatives of the Hungarian, Czechoslovak, Polish, GDR, Soviet, Vietnamese, and Cuban Church Offices held a consultative meeting in Budapest in January 1986. This meeting had been initiated by the Hungarian State Office for Church Affairs at an earlier meeting of the heads of the state church offices in Prague in 1984, to analyze the Vatican’s policy towards the socialist countries and to draw up proposals for practical action. The importance of the documents contained in the source release is that they provide insight into the form of the discussions between socialist church organizations and the way in which the head of the office informed the MSZMP Agitation and Propaganda Department on the specific case.
From a scientific point of view, the significance of the contents of the document can be summarized as follows. 1: The fact of reporting to the Agitprop Department; 2: the ideological and practical content of the memo on which the report is based; 3: the meeting of socialist church organizations and offices, the organized conferences; 4: the close cooperation and coordination between these offices and its focus as described above.

Keywords: socialist church offices, State Office for Church Affairs, Vatican, church, church reactionary elements

Adrienn Purcsi: Historical Essay, or In Short About the Nationality Policy and the Revision That Appeared in the Spirit of St. Stephen’s Idea of the State

St. Stephen’s state policy and the revisionist and nationality policy appearing as part of it are the most defining elements of the political thinking of the Horthy era. In many specialized literatures, we can read about their importance, but less about their exact definition. In our short historical essay, we attempt to briefly and concisely define the content elements of these concepts.

Keywords: Horthy-era, revision, issue of nationality, István Bethlen, Pál Teleki, Gyula Szekfű

Zsolt Turi: A Pragmatic Conflict: Polish Military Activity in the Counties of Northern Hungary in 1918

In the autumn of 1918, Polish armed units occupied settlements and industrial facilities in Northern Hungary. The territories in question were the counties of Árva and Szepes. These regions had considerable numbers of Poles and the invading armed forces invoked the right of peoples to self-determination to justify their actions. Hungarian military and law enforcement forces on the spot had orders to defend the territory of the country; however, in most cases, they retreated from the conflicted areas not wanting to engage in firefights with Polish units. The truth is that neither country’s leadership had an interest in clashing with the other. Poland was a newborn state that needed allies to assert its newly acquired statehood. Hungary was a country exhausted by war, surrounded by enemies, and having deep internal problems. In northwestern Hungary, Czech influence was already spreading thus the Hungarian political leadership believed that the Hungarian state would suffer territorial losses in any case. They preferred to lose these areas to Poland than to the Czechs and thus a complete ring of hostility around Hungary cannot be achieved by its neighbors. In 1923, an agreement was signed deciding the fate of Árva and Szepes counties, which left most of these areas to the Czech (Czechoslovak) side.

Keywords: Polish, Árva, Szepes, Hungary, 1918, diplomacy, agreement, 20th century, interwar period, military, Czech, statehood, nationality, Czechoslovakia