Abstracts in theological studies
The doctrine of predestination posits that some individuals are pre-selected by God for eternal salvation, while others are either consigned to the fate of the damned or actively chosen for eternal damnation. Within this doctrine, two distinct perspectives can be identified: the supra- and infralapsarian views, which offer differing accounts of the logical sequence of predestination. The former asserts that God first chose those who would be saved and rejected those who would be damned, allowing mankind to fall into sin thereafter. Conversely, the latter view contends that God first permitted sin to occur and subsequently selected individuals from among the damned for salvation. These views represent logical frameworks that aim to explicate the degree of pre-creation design. In this paper, I will outline the historical origins and theoretical foundations of both perspectives, drawing from the works of confessional texts and theologians. Given the absence of a comprehensive overview of the subject in Hungarian, I will limit myself to a general treatment of the topic, omitting an exhaustive exposition of the arguments advanced by each view, and instead emphasizing their essential features.
Keywords: predestination, supralapsarianism, infralapsarianism, Augustine, Calvin
The Protestant Christianity in the Republic of Korea is approximately 140 years old. During this relatively short time, the number of Christians grew rapidly, exceeding 20% of the total population. The evangelical movement of young Christian students played an important role in the background of the growth of Protestant Christianity. Thanks to the actions of Christian student movement associations, a spiritual awakening began in the Korean people, and the so-called miracle of Han River brought a great change and growth. The goal of this essay is to examine how important the Christian youth student movement has been in this short 140-year-old history of Christianity in Korea.
Keywords: Korean, christian, Evangelical Movement
Kata Pető-Veres: Data and context of the history and practice of the institution of godparents in Hungarian Reformed practice
During the apostolic period, the sacrament of baptism was mostly provided to adult converts and members of the household, which most certainly included children. After this period of church history, from the 4th to 5th century, infant baptism became increasingly common. The institution of household sponsors for the parents of the actual person disappeared, and in the 9th century, it was abolished permanently. After this, a system of criteria for the election of godparents was born. The characteristics expected by the church and the common people did not always coincide.
According to the Bible, the existence of the institution of godparenthood cannot be presumed. Nevertheless, it was passed on by the churches of the Reformation and given new content. In this presentation, I undertake to show what changes the institution of the godparent has undergone from the beginning to the present day, but especially in the Reformed Church. I will examine the criteria that godparents had to meet, the expectations placed on them, what assurances the church saw in the right godparents, their task in the baptismal liturgy, and to what extent these rules set by the church can be kept in the context of present society.
There has been no clear answer to all of these questions in church history because, as the lecture seeks to convey, many have approached the subject in different ways. A wide range of opinions is present at the same time, some in favor of choosing godparents based on very strict principles, and others quite mild, almost indifferent, in selecting them. It is important to talk about the institution of godparent because some believe it promotes the survival of a denomination.
Keywords: baptism, godparents, liturgy, responsibilities of godparents, different approaches in choosing godparents
Dániel Tóth-Gyóllai: The Reform of Pastoral Training: A Questionnaire-Based Study with the Participation of Eleven Western Protestant Churches
The aim of my study is to present the results of an online questionnaire-based survey (launched in February 2023) conducted among international churches, within the framework of the Reformed Church in Hungary’s 2023 annual program (The Year of Pastoral Ministry). The objective of the questionnaire-based research is to initiate a dialogue with our Western partner-churches regarding experiences, best practices, challenges, and explorations related to the reform of pastoral training, recruitment, education, qualification, further education, and spiritual/financial support of pastors. The analysis of the 25-question questionnaire, filled out by 11 out of 20 recipients, was conducted using the LimeSurvey questionnaire- editor and evaluator, based on previous research initiatives by the Reformed Church in Hungary and the materials produced in relation to pastoral training in the year 2023.
Keywords: online questionnaire, survey, inter-denominational, international, reform in pastoral training and ministry, MRE, The Year of Pastoral Ministry
Abstracts of legal science studies
György Tamás Farkas: Concepts of the special electoral regulations concerning the minorities’ parliamentary representation in Hungary from the end of the communism to 2010
In Hungary, with a delay of about a quarter of a century realized the legislator the special electoral regulations, which aimed the parliamentary representation of the minorities. During this period, several legislative drafts were created, of which many drafts remained at the concept level, but some reached the final vote. This study aims to review the legislator’s concepts regarding the special electoral regulations for minorities from the end of the communism, until the actual adoption of the special electoral regulations for minorities in 2011, when the legislator, in addition to the possibility of obtaining preferential mandates, also created the legal institution of the spokesperson (of a national minority), which became an active contributor to the power function with regard to legislation on minorities.
Keywords: constitutional law, electoral law, minority law
Since the Courage case, competition damages litigation has been surrounded by a number of legal issues. The introduction of Directive 2014/104/EU of the European Parliament and Council of 16 December 2014 on certain rules governing actions for damages under national law for infringements of the competition law provisions of the Member States and of the European Union (“Directive”) does not appear to have resolved all of these issues, and has generated a number of additional problems surrounding the legal instrument under examination. The present paper examines the problems related to the limitation period for claims for damages under competition law. First, I describe the regulatory rationale of the Directive on the issue of limitation periods for competition claims, and then analyse the EU case law on Article 10 of the Directive on limitation periods. In the following, I briefly describe the Hungarian legislation. In the later part of the paper, I will take a closer look at three specific issues related to the limitation period for competition damages claims: the cessation of the infringement, the acknowledgement of the identity of the infringing undertaking and the time when the damage occurred as conditions for the starting point of the limitation period. The purpose of this paper is to examine the above-mentioned issues relating to the limitation period for claims for damages under competition law and to draw conclusions on the basis of this examination.
Keywords: competition law, competition law damages actions, limitation period, economic continuity
Róbert Holló: Self-Government of Ethnic Minorities in the USA
An Overview of the Self-Government of the Native American Lakota Nation
The Lakota Tribe, also known as the Sioux, is one of the indigenous peoples of North America. Their traditional governance system is based on the principles of consensus, consultation, and respect for individual autonomy. In this system, decisions are made by consensus among members of the community, and everyone has an equal voice in the decision-making process. The Lakota also have a strong spiritual tradition, which is intertwined with their governance system and guides their relationships with the land and each other. In recent times, the Lakota have faced many challenges, including loss of land, cultural assimilation, and poverty. Despite these challenges, they have continued to maintain their traditional governance system and strive for self-determination. This essay provides an overview of the self-government of the Lakota Nation, including their governance structure, decision-making process, and relationship with the federal government. It also discusses the challenges they face and the strategies they have employed to preserve their cultural heritage and promote self-determination.
Keywords: constitutional law, self-government, government-to-government relationship, tribal council, ethnic minorities
Péter László Jeszenszki: The history of the special legal order from the second half of the 19th century to 1989
The aim of this study is to examine and explore the historical situations in Hungary’s history, especially from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, during which a special legal order was established or introduced in Hungary. Furthermore, the development of the legal regulations concerning the special legal order and their antecedents are examined, with special emphasis on the laws on national defence introduced during this period. The Ninth and Tenth Amendments to the Constitution, in response to a security environment that has changed significantly over the last ten years, set out to bring about a systemic reform that would result in a modern, effective defence system. The study could serve as a basis for a future analysis of the best way to respond to the challenges of the present day in relation to the special legal order, drawing on the experience of the last almost one hundred years, and on the principles and dogmatic aspects already established.
Keywords: special legal order, law of national defence, state of emergency, fundamental right, power, regulation, war, exceptional power
The present study is the continuation of a scientific research – previously started on the child protection system, which unfortunately brings us topicality. All in all we have to start with the fact that it appears that child protection legislation is still unable to provide adequate protection to the children who represent our future. In the United States, in California, legislation faced problems very similar to the ones we find ourselves in Hungary today. In my study I would like to demonstrate, that any sexual attraction against minors is considered a personality-distorting abuse committed to the detriment of the minor, regardless of how the perpetrators interpret it. For this reason, it is necessary to evaluate this set of behaviors not only from a legal point of view – through an ultima ratio filter – but – as US legislation does – due to its seriously deviant nature, it is treated as a consequence of a disorder mental dangerous to society.
Keywords: child abuse, child protection, human trafficking, relationship violence, mental disorder
Traditionally, morality and law can be seen as two distinct, separate sets of rules, each with its own different function. We can conclude that, according to the Reformed starting point, law and morality are very closely related. The Bible also connects the two norms, among other things calling on kings to do judgment and justice. In principle, there can be immoral but lawful actions, and moral but unlawful actions. If law and morality go together in lawmaking and law enforcement, there is no legal concern. The same applies at the other extreme. If both lawmaking and law enforcement are immoral, then we are faced with an almost irremediable legal problem. If the legislation is moral, but the application of the law is immoral, then the remedy system can eliminate the problem. If a moral problem arises in the course of lawmaking, the constitutional complaint procedure may be the solution.
Keywords: law, morality, constitutional law, legislation, application of law
The Holy Crown is much more than an object of great wealth. All the more so because the creation of the crown is surrounded by uncertainty. Let us add that throughout history our kings have had many other crowns made for themselves. This very abstract veneration was reserved exclusively for the Holy Crown. In international relations, the Holy Crown became the symbol of the Hungarian state from the 14th century onwards. After the Battle of Mohács (1526), Hungary was divided into three parts. From then on, the Holy Crown became a symbol of the unity of the country and the nation. During the reign of Joseph II, the crown was transferred to the Vienna Treasury (1784-1790). The King deliberately did not crown himself. He did not want to fulfil his constitutional obligations. After World War II, the crown was transferred from the occupying Germans to the USA. It was returned to Hungary in 1978.
Keywords: Holy Crown, legitimacy, state power, public law, tradition
Protecting our children is the cornerstone of our society. Throughout Europe, the problem of begging is closely linked to poverty, and throughout history the term ‘poor’ has encompassed, among others, beggars, unmarried adults, orphans and displaced children. Begging in the company of a child automatically raises suspicion of a crime if the child is used by a parent or legal guardian. If there is child begging, the facts are twofold. When children are begging, institutions have a duty to act, but in reality this rarely happens.
Keywords: child, minor, child endangerment, child abuse, begging
Franciska Regős: The development of responsibility for internationally wrongful acts, with particular reference to the codification work of the International Law Commission
The codification of the international responsibility of states cannot be described as a smooth road. The starting point for early codification efforts was primarily the responsibility for damage caused to foreigners. This was, inter alia, the approach taken at the 1930 codification conference in The Hague and later by the International Law Commission. During nearly 50 years of work, it became clear that it was impossible to deal with the various sub-areas without clarifying the general rules on the responsibility of states under international law. This paper aims to explore the stages in the development of state responsibility, with particular attention to the work of the International Law Commission and the resulting draft articles, which are reflected in the case law of international courts, particularly the International Court of Justice.
Keywords: International law, responsibility, International Law Commission
International trade law has far-reaching implications for environmental protection at both national and international levels. It is difficult to reconcile trade objectives with environmental objectives, which often leads to conflicts. As environmental protection has grown, various nations have introduced more and more conservation measures, which in many cases have conflicted with the commercial interests of other states. Not surprisingly, a number of these disputes have been brought before the WTO dispute settlement mechanism, which has involved the application of international environmental law. The purpose of this paper is to explore these cases and identify their implications for international environmental law. By examining the relevant cases, this paper concludes that the WTO seems to be opening up to the application of international environmental law, which has an impact on the outcome of some disputes.
Keywords: WTO, reformulated gasoline, beef hormones, shrimp-turtle, international environmental law
In my writing, I seek a comprehensive overview of child trafficking in relation to criminal exploitation, I deal with the image of forced crime, a brief outline of the forms of crime committed by victims of human trafficking, and the specific situation of victims in this area. My study is descriptive, based on secondary research, in connection with which I have used both primary and secondary sources. During my research, I mainly reviewed the relevant domestic and international sources of law and studies related to the topic. My aim is to explore the characteristics of the criminal exploitation of victims of child trafficking and to demonstrate that the importance of this form of exploitation is undervalued. Children who are trafficked are often exploited through forced criminal activity, yet it is very difficult to find statistics on this. These children are often mistakenly identified as the offenders of the crime.
Keywords: child trafficking, criminal exploitation, pickpocketing
Abstracts in historical studies
In dualist Hungary, much importance was given to prostitution, among other fields, because of its impact on public health and morality. Therefore, commercial sexuality was frequently analysed as part of the national vision of death and eugenics strategy. Since we have no direct insight into prostitution as a highly taboo behaviour, it can be best analysed through reflections. The purpose of my study is to show, through moral reflection, how people’s attitudes of the time were to prostitution, what medical aspects it had, and why the issue of prostitution was so prominent in public discourse. I will examine from this point of view how the Hungarian Association Against the Trafficking of Girls (later the Association), as a humanitarian organisation with substantial state funding, viewed prostitution, how it fitted into the public perception of prostitution at the time, or how it turned against the public opinion. The questionnaires that the Association’s patronage staff made with prostitute candidates between 1912 and 1913, which are also the subject of this study, are excellent source material for this purpose.
Keywords: dualist era in Hungary, prostitution, moral reflections, eugenics, human trafficking against women, Hungarian Association Against the Trafficking of Girls
Krisztián Bödő: The characteristics of rational estate management in some Fejér county manors in the middle of the 19th century in the light of the contemporary press
In 1853, the agronomist László Korizmics visited some manors in Fejér county to observe the development of agriculture. In his multi-page article about the trip, as a basis of comparison, he briefly touched on the characteristics of the Ercsi manor, on the economic activities of Baron Lilien, whose influence he could discover on the estates he visited. In the study, we present the development of the Ercsi manor at the beginning of the 19th century, and then, based on Korizmcs article, we examine the respective farms in three main questions. How did plant culture and field cultivation expand, what agrotechnical changes did it go through, so what characterizes mechanization? How did animal husbandry, especially sheep farming change? Who were the tenants and property managers, who were the driving forces and supporters of the development, so what role did the personnel apparatus of each farm play in the changes during this transition period? The written sources of these estates are damaged or completely destroyed, so our source is mainly the press of the 1850s, especially Gazdasági Lapok edited by László Korizmics.
Keywords: agriculture, manor, agricultural technology, sheep farming
One of the biggest problems in Hungary between the two world wars was poverty and its handling. The defeat of World War I, the Aster Revolution and the Hungarian Soviet Republic, and the Treaty of Trianon, the territorial, economic, and demographical damages resulted in fundamental social and economic changes. The State and the Churches had to take more responsibility for serving the poor. The social policy was born in this era, this was the first time the State started taking a role in the poor-relief not just in Hungary but in whole Europe. Although the part of the State increased, it wasn’t enough. The catholic nuns presented in this study dedicated their lives to serving the poor.
Keywords: social policy, poor-relief, Hungarian Catholic Church, catholic nuns
Nikoletta Kiss-Mikó: One of the most notable members of the Ráday family – The estateorganizing work of Pál I. Ráday in the 18th century
Undoubtedly, one of the most important member of the Ráday family has been Pál I. Ráday, public notary of Nógrád County since 1699, taking an active part in the Rákóczi freedom fight from 1703. Many publications deal with these subjects, while the history of the estates, establishing the fortune of Pál, passed by to him from his father in the early 1700s, could not by traced easily. Thus, in this paper I, by examining archival records, try to examine this question. The Ráday estate, consisting of 80-12 serf lots, relied on the less developed two-year agricultural methods, in some places using the three-year method, thus only cultivating on a small percentage of the fields at hand. On other parts the situation has been even less ideal: small farms followed the archaic, steppic extensive livestock breeding practices. Due to the outstanding organizing and management skills of Pál, and his wife, incomes from this problematic background has allowed for the construction of a new family mansion.
It has been an important factor, that the financial balance of the Ráday family has swifted to the northern parts of the country, that Pál choose Alsó-Ludány in Nógrád County, as his new center of management, and as the new family residence too. There has been built between 1700 and 1702 the „Ludány House”, which has been expanded to be a castle by him.
Keywords: 18th century, Alsó-Ludány, estate-history, nobility, Ráday family, Pál Ráday
The national census of taxpayers in 1828 (Conscriptio Regnicolaris) and the Rectificata Conscriptio Regnicolaris in 1833 are part of the historical-statistical sources about society, from which we used the set of documents from Szolnok. The literature’s critical analysis and a the source material’s detailed presentation are an important for a more accurate use of the data in the documents. Having established that a one-to-one transposition of the Latus does not lead to accurate results, it is necessary to take the rectifications into account. We present how many individuals are directly or indirectly linked to the census, in addition to the taxable heads of household listed by name. For the statistical calculation, we have prepared our database in form of an Excel spreadsheet based on the rectification to the national census of taxpayers. From the results of our descriptive statistical calculations, only those relating to sex and age groups are reported and interpreted. Concerning gender, we present 1665 persons’ data, while concerning the age group, the distribution of 3551 persons aged between 18 and 60 years and aged over 60 years.
Keywords: Conscriptio Regnicolaris, Rectificata Coscriptio Regnicolaris, national census of taxpayers in 1828, rectification in 1833, Szolnok, household, head of household, sex distribution, age group
The issue of nationality and the revision was one of the central elements of the public issues of Hungary between the two world wars, so it can be said that the study makes a popular topic the subject of contemporary investigation. Through the thinking of two significant public figures, Gyula Szekfű –he was a historian, cultural politician, editor and the defining and most influential political thinker of the era- and István Bethlen –prime Minister of Hungary between 1921 and 1931–, it presents the main features and central elements of their ideas on the issue of nationality, and how they were connected to one of the revisionist ideas appearing in the era. When preparing the study, we reviewed the entire oeuvre of Gyula Szekfű and István Bethlen and selected the most relevant writings from the topic’s point of view. The raison d’être of this article lies in the fact that although one study has been published in both subject, the thinking of the two of them has not been examined in detail at the same time. Furthermore, in the case of Gyula Szekfű, the presentation of medieval minority policy studies and its connection to the St. Stephen’s nationality policy appearing the era between the two world wars –Horthy era– and to the idea of the state itself is not given a role. The thesis therefore shows how the person of St. Stephen appeared in the public thinking of the Horthy era, and why his politics were actually popular. The thesis greatly complements the published studies on the topic, opening up opportunities for new research.
Keywords: Gyula Szekfű, István Bethlen, Horthy era, issue of nationality, revision
Vivien Rapali: “Life is hard here” – László Karácsonyi’s american letters from 1957 – Reflections on the margins of an academic engineer attempt to emigrate
In the spring of 1957, László Karácsonyi (1900-1985), one of the leading authorities in agricultural chemistry in Hungary, chemical engineer and university professor, sends a letter to his former American colleague, William F. Geddes (1896–1961) to help him leave Hungary. The message, sent to Minneapolis by an anonymous courier under adventurous circumstances, met with a positive response, and Karácsonyi not only received a reply to his letter, but also an opportunity to emigrate. The Hungarian-American correspondence, reported in this paper, provides a vivid picture of the opportunities for Hungarian scientific engineers after 1956 and a good example of existing the professional network that was able to function in the post-war era.
Keywords: 1956, technical intellectuals, emigration, engineer, Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Gergő Segesdi: Royal defense act in the kingdom without a king – Debates about the legal facilities of the republican propaganda in the 1920’s Hungarian national assembly
The main focus of this study is the legal regulation of republican propaganda in the 1920s which is one of the critical aspects of the appearance of republican ideas in Hungary during the Horthy era. The article of law that significantly determined the facilities of the republican propaganda no. XXXIV. of year 1913. This law article had a substantial limiting force because it imposed a serious penalty for those who offended the king’s person or exerted activity for the termination of the institute of the monarchy. Although this was created in 1913 against György Nagy and his republican movement, it still has been used in the 1920′ and condemned such republican public figures like Imre Veér. During István Bethlen’s prime minister, they regularly tried to stop every kind of republican propaganda and referred to law no. XXXIV. of year 1913 is still valid. At the same time, the opposition of the Horthy-era denied the validity of this law and demanded the abolition of this law. They connected its issue with Habsburg propaganda, the government’s double standards, foreign relations, constitutional rights, the suffrage law, and the law of the upper house.
Keywords: Horthy-era, Hungarian national assembly, republicanism, law no. XXXIV. of year 1913
Krisztián Attila Timári: Publicity and influence – The press of the Habsburg Empire under II. Joseph during the preparation period of the war against the turks
The Ottoman Empire had been at war with the Russian Empire, allied to the Viennese court, since the end of August 1787. The news of the Russo-Ottoman war spread quickly throughout the Habsburg Empire and immediately became the main topic in the printed press. Months of military and economic preparations for the war were made with the full attention of the press organs. But the flow, distribution, and rewriting of the news were unique to each newspaper. The entry into the war was a political interest. The newspaper editors were under the impression that they were presenting to the reading public an idealized and justified picture of war. The censors and the censorship system, which varied from area to area, made the overall picture even more interesting. Finally, in early February 1788, the Habsburg Empire declared war on the Ottoman Empire. The aim of the study is also to present the most interesting topics and events before the war.
Keywords: war, diplomacy, press, censorship, Habsburg Empire, newspaper
Róbert Vendriczki: The Chronicle of Nagyfüged – The society and economy of Nagyfüged in the 17–18th centuries
Nagyfüged was included in the „Turkish occupation” in the early stages of Turkish rule. Still, it became a war zone, and as a result, the village was destroyed several times, or its inhabitants abandoned it due to the battles. After the expulsion of the Turks, it was quickly repopulated. However, during the Rákóczi War of Independence, the village was depopulated again, and its population either fled or fought under the banner of Ferenc Rákóczi against the Habsburg Empire. After the cessation of hostilities in 1712, it was already considered an inhabited settlement, where the largest landowner was the Almásy family. After the situation of the village stabilized, development began, which culminated in the 1730s and 1740s, which was facilitated by the increase and cultivation of agricultural land and the expansion of animal husbandry and trade in the county of Heves. As a result, the minor nobility and Jews also appeared in contemporary Nagyfüged. The ideas of the Enlightenment in the form of public welfare also affected the population through the measures taken by the Habsburg rulers, and the subsidies of the landlords also indirectly contributed to the development.
Keywords: War, depopulation, settlement, development, stability, serf, agriculture, Almásy family, Habsburg Empire, public welfare